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干热岩压裂建造人工热储发展现状及建议

解经宇 王丹 李宁 王振宇 付国强 金显鹏 明圆圆

解经宇, 王丹, 李宁, 王振宇, 付国强, 金显鹏, 明圆圆. 干热岩压裂建造人工热储发展现状及建议[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(3): 321-329. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0082
引用本文: 解经宇, 王丹, 李宁, 王振宇, 付国强, 金显鹏, 明圆圆. 干热岩压裂建造人工热储发展现状及建议[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(3): 321-329. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0082
Xie Jingyu, Wang Dan, Li Ning, Wang Zhenyu, Fu Guoqiang, Jing Xianpeng, Ming Yuanyuan. Development status and suggestions of hot dry rock hydraulic fracturing for building geothermal reservoirs[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(3): 321-329. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0082
Citation: Xie Jingyu, Wang Dan, Li Ning, Wang Zhenyu, Fu Guoqiang, Jing Xianpeng, Ming Yuanyuan. Development status and suggestions of hot dry rock hydraulic fracturing for building geothermal reservoirs[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(3): 321-329. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0082

干热岩压裂建造人工热储发展现状及建议

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0082
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2020YFE0201300-05

国家自然科学基金项目 42102353

详细信息
    作者简介:

    解经宇(1991—), 男, 博士后, 主要从事水力压裂岩石力学方面的研究工作。E-mail: xiejingyu@cug.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    王丹(1992—), 男, 助理研究员, 主要从事地热开发方面的研究工作。E-mail: wangdan01@mail.cgs.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P314

Development status and suggestions of hot dry rock hydraulic fracturing for building geothermal reservoirs

  • 摘要:

    能源是经济社会长期稳定发展的有力保障。同时, 我国也进入了生态文明建设的关键时期。为实现此目标, 亟需建设清洁、低碳、高效、多元的现代能源体系。干热岩型地热作为一种新兴的环境友好型资源, 有望推进能源结构转型。开发干热岩需要建立增强型地热系统, 其核心是向储层钻井并压裂形成一定规模的裂缝网络, 构建井间循环回路来提取热能发电。20世纪70年代以来, 多个发达国家先后进行干热岩资源开发尝试, 然而受到人工热储建造和诱发地震防控等关键技术的限制, 成功运行的EGS工程屈指可数。近些年来, 干热岩资源的优越性和规模化开发可行性进一步得到国际社会的认可, 投入建设的EGS数量总体上不断增加。水力压裂是建造人工热储的核心技术手段之一, 水力裂缝的形态直接决定了换热体积和取热效率。本文在分析国内外典型EGS压裂案例的基础上, 总结了干热岩水力压裂的工艺特点。此外, 结合几种较为流行的理论模型和我国首例EGS工程——共和盆地恰卜恰干热岩试采工程的实际情况, 简要阐述了干热岩压裂与诱发地震之间的关系。最后从压裂工艺、智能化开发、微地震监测矩张量反演等方面为干热岩水力压裂向更深层次发展提出建议。

     

  • 图 1  EE-2、EE-3(含侧钻井)井身结构及压裂微震分布示意图(据文献[15]修编)

    Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of the well structure and fracturing microseismic distribution of EE-2 and EE-3(in cluding side drilling)

    图 2  Soultz EGS工程开发井井轨迹示意图(据参考文献[17]修编)

    Figure 2.  Schematic diagram of the development well trajectory of Soultz EGS project

    图 3  Cooper Basin EGS工程压裂造储微地震云示意图[23]

    Figure 3.  Schematic diagram of microseismic cloud generated by fracturing in Cooper Basin EGS project

    图 4  Helsinki EGS工程水力压裂微地震监测示意图(据文献[29]修编)

    Figure 4.  Schematic diagram of hydraulic fracturing microseismic monitoring of Helsinki EGS project

    图 5  桥塞、封隔器使用前后对比[32]

    Figure 5.  Comparison of bridge plugs and packers before and after fracturing

    图 6  共和干热岩开发场地

    Figure 6.  HDR development site in the Gonghe Basin

    图 7  水力压裂诱发地震的机理示意图(据文献[41])

    Figure 7.  Schematic diagram of the mechanism of hydraulic fracturing induced earthquakes

    图 8  高角度大尺寸天然裂缝和石英脉

    Figure 8.  High angle and large size natural fractures and quartz veins

    图 9  水力裂缝沿岩性界面延伸

    Figure 9.  Fracture propagation along the lithologic interface

    图 10  McGarr模型中注液量与最大震级之间的关系[41]

    Figure 10.  Relationship between liquid injection volume and maximum magnitude in McGarr model

    表  1  典型EGS工程压裂参数及诱发地震情况表

    Table  1.   Hydraulic fracturing parameters and induced earthquake of the typical EGS projects

    项目 开发模式 压裂改造井号(年份) 液量/万m3 排量/(m3·min-1) 井口压力分布情况 诱发最大震级和发生时间
    Cooper Basin 一注一采 H01(2003) 2.000 0~1.5 45~90 MPa 压裂过程中最大震级ML 3.7
    H01(2005) 0.380 0~1.5
    H04(2012) 0.260 1.3~3.6
    H04(2012) 3.400 1.3~3.6
    Soultz 三井模式 GPK2(2000) 2.800 0~3 10~60.5 MPa 停泵后一个月内发生ML 2.9地震
    GPK2(2000) 2.340 0~3
    GPK3(2003) 3.400 0~3
    GPK4 (2004) 0.940 1.8~2.7
    (2005) 1.230 1.8~2.7
    Pohang 计划建成三井模式 PX-2(2016) 1.280 0~4.5 最大89.2 MPa 停泵后6个月发生Mw 5.5级地震,压裂过程中最大震级Mw 2.9
    PX-1(2016-2017) 0.390 0~2.81 最大27.7 MPa
    Fenton Hill 一注一采 EE-2(多次压裂) 2.130 0~6.48 45~90 MPa
    EE-3(多次压裂) 7.590 0~1.4
    Helsinki 一注一采 OTN-3(2018) 1.816 0.4~0.8 60~90 MPa 压力过程中最大Mw1.9级
    注:Mw表示矩震级; ML表示里氏震级
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-07

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