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渤海湾盆地渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩生物标志物特征及其地质意义

黄谦 陈容涛 彭晓波 李新琦 王宁

黄谦, 陈容涛, 彭晓波, 李新琦, 王宁. 渤海湾盆地渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩生物标志物特征及其地质意义[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(3): 180-192. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0085
引用本文: 黄谦, 陈容涛, 彭晓波, 李新琦, 王宁. 渤海湾盆地渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩生物标志物特征及其地质意义[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(3): 180-192. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0085
Huang Qian, Chen Rongtao, Peng Xiaobo, Li Xinqi, Wang Ning. Characteristics and geological significance of biomarkers from the Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag, Bohai Bay Basin[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(3): 180-192. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0085
Citation: Huang Qian, Chen Rongtao, Peng Xiaobo, Li Xinqi, Wang Ning. Characteristics and geological significance of biomarkers from the Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag, Bohai Bay Basin[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(3): 180-192. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0085

渤海湾盆地渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩生物标志物特征及其地质意义

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0085
基金项目: 

中海油天津分公司项目"渤海海域中南部优质烃源岩特征及形成机理研究" CCL2020TJT0NST1956

详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄谦(1997—), 女, 现正攻读地球化学专业硕士学位,主要从事油气地球化学研究。E-mail: 1455495143@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    彭晓波(1976—),男, 副教授, 主要从事石油地质与勘探研究与教学工作。E-mail: pxbcn@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P593

Characteristics and geological significance of biomarkers from the Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag, Bohai Bay Basin

  • 摘要:

    渤中凹陷位于渤海湾盆地中东部, 主要发育沙三、沙一和东三段烃源岩层, 具有良好的油气勘探前景, 前期对渤中凹陷有机地球化学特征的研究主要基于岩屑样品, 对岩心样品生物标志物特征的研究比较薄弱。本次研究综合利用岩心和岩屑样品, 通过有机碳、岩石热解、氯仿沥青"A"、族组分饱和烃色谱-质谱等有机地球化学分析测试, 重点对渤中凹陷古近系东营组三段和沙河街组一段、三段烃源岩的有机质丰度、类型、成熟度及母质来源与沉积环境进行研究, 明确了渤中凹陷三套泥页岩的地球化学特征及发育控制因素, 并建立了区分3套烃源岩的典型生物标志化合物组合特征, 以期望为进一步厘清该区域优质烃源岩发育模式及时空分布提供一定的理论依据, 进而有利于该区油气的勘探。研究结果表明: 3套烃源岩的生烃潜力具有显著差异, 沙三段>沙一段>东三段。沙三段烃源岩有机质丰度最高, 为好-极好烃源岩, 有机质类型为Ⅰ-Ⅱ1型, 处于成熟阶段; 沙一段次之, 为中等-好烃源岩, 有机质类型为Ⅱ1-Ⅱ2型, 整体处于成熟阶段; 东三段稍差, 为中等烃源岩, 有机质类型以Ⅱ1-Ⅱ2型为主, 处于低熟-成熟阶段。岩心样品的生物标志化合物中姥植比(Pr/Ph)、伽马蜡烷指数(Ga/C30H)、C27-C28-C29规则甾烷含量、4-甲基甾烷指数(4-MS/C29甾烷)等参数表明母质输入和沉积环境是控制3套湖相烃源岩差异的主控因素, 淡水藻源输入和良好的保存条件是沙三段优质烃源岩发育的关键, 低等水生生物输入和强还原的保存条件是沙一段优质烃源岩发育的关键, 混源输入和良好的保存条件是东三段优质烃源岩发育的关键。

     

  • 图 1  渤海海域渤中凹陷区域概况及沉积地层综合柱状图(据文献[16-17]修改)

    Figure 1.  General situation of the Bozhong Sag and comprehensive histogram of sedimentary strata in Bohai Sea area

    图 2  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩有机质丰度评价

    a.有机碳质量分数分布; b.有机碳质量分数与生烃潜量关系

    Figure 2.  Evaluation of organic matter abundance of Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    图 3  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩有机质类型划分

    a.干酪根元素组成; b.烃源岩HITmax关系

    Figure 3.  Classification of organic matter types of paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    图 4  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩深度与镜质体反射率关系

    Figure 4.  Relationship depth and between vitrinite reflectance and of Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    图 5  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩正构烷烃分布特征

    Figure 5.  Distribution characteristics of n alkanes in the source rocks of Paleogene in Bozhong Sag

    图 6  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩Pr/nC17和Ph/nC18相关图

    Figure 6.  Correlation diagram of Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 of Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    图 7  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩甾萜类化合物生标特征

    Figure 7.  Biostandard characteristics of steranes and terpenoids from Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    图 8  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩不同层段烃源岩色谱质谱图

    Figure 8.  Organic matter chromatograms of different layers of paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    图 9  渤中凹陷不同烃源岩层段m/z 191典型谱图

    Figure 9.  m/z 191 typical spectra of different source strata in Bozhong Sag

    图 10  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩生物标志化合物参数组合对比

    Figure 10.  Comparison of biomarker parameter combinations of Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    表  1  陆相烃源岩有机质丰度评价指标(据SY/T 5735-1995)

    Table  1.   Evaluation index of organic matter abundance of terrestrial source rock (SY/T 5735-1995)

    指标 湖盆水体类型 非生油岩 生油岩类型
    差烃源岩 中等烃源岩 好烃源岩 优质烃源岩
    w(TOC)/% 淡水-半咸水
    咸水-超咸水
    <0.4
    <0.2
    [0.4, 0.6]
    [0.2, 0.4]
    [0.6, 1.0]
    [0.2, 0.6]
    [1.0, 2.0]
    [0.6, 0.8]
    >2.0
    >0.8
    HC/(μg·g-1) <100 [100, 200] [200, 500] [500, 1 000] >1 000
    (S1+S2)/(mg·g-1) <2 [2, 6] (6, 20] >20
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩有机地球化学特征

    Table  2.   Organic geochemical characteristics of paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    层位 总有机碳
    质量分数/%
    生烃潜量/
    (mg·g-1)
    峰温/℃ 总烃含量HC/
    (μg·g-1)
    有机质类型 综合评价
    东三段 $ \frac{{0.5 \sim 5.56}}{{1.92\left( {167} \right)}}$ $ \frac{{0.33 \sim 32.16}}{{8.38\left( {167} \right)}}$ $ \frac{{325 \sim 483}}{{434\left( {167} \right)}}$ $ \frac{{9 \sim 774}}{{328\left( {167} \right)}}$ 1-Ⅱ2 中等-好
    沙一段 $\frac{{0.88 \sim 6.9}}{{3.11\left( {49} \right)}} $ $\frac{{1.03 \sim 59.8}}{{17.15\left( {49} \right)}} $ $\frac{{383 \sim 464}}{{431\left( {49} \right)}} $ $\frac{{15 \sim 983}}{{428\left( {49} \right)}} $ 1-Ⅱ2
    沙三段 $ \frac{{0.93 \sim 8.97}}{{3.78\left( {65} \right)}}$ $ \frac{{3.16 \sim 92.15}}{{21.22\left( {65} \right)}}$ $ \frac{{426 \sim 460}}{{439\left( {65} \right)}}$ $ \frac{{416 \sim 1114}}{{547\left( {65} \right)}}$ Ⅰ-Ⅱ1 好-优质
    注:数据格式为$ \frac{{最小值 \sim 最大值}}{{平均值\left( 样品数 \right)}}$
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩生物标志化合物参数

    Table  3.   Biomarker parameters of Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    井号 深度/m 层位 主峰碳数 CPI OEP Pr/Ph Pr/nC17 Ph/
    nC18
    C19TT/
    C23TT
    C24TeT/
    C26TT
    Gα/
    C30H
    Ts/
    Tm
    C27
    αααR/R
    C28
    αααR/%
    C29
    αααR/%
    C27/
    C29αααR
    C2920S/
    (20S+20R)
    C29 αββ/
    (ααα+αββ)
    4-甲基甾烷/
    C29甾烷
    A 4741.05 东三段 nC16 1.07 0.95 1.21 0.14 0.13 1.01 1.43 0.03 0.98 37.48 17.11 45.41 0.83 0.48 0.45 0.21
    A 4743.46 东三段 nC16 1.07 0.96 1.11 0.12 0.12 1.64 1.45 0.09 1.03 34.95 19.57 45.48 0.77 0.51 0.46 0.20
    A 4744.77 东三段 nC16 1.06 0.96 1.32 0.10 0.09 1.10 0.93 0.06 1.13 36.28 16.13 47.60 0.76 0.48 0.47 0.16
    A 4746.30 东三段 nC16 1.06 0.93 1.13 0.12 0.11 1.60 1.12 0.07 1.25 33.59 20.35 46.06 0.73 0.51 0.43 0.17
    B 4118.20 东三段 nC16 1.16 0.86 1.93 0.66 0.37 0.57 0.95 0.08 0.79 29.08 28.09 42.83 0.68 0.47 0.43 0.22
    B 4129.80 东三段 nC27 1.14 1.11 2.09 0.62 0.27 0.74 1.98 0.04 0.77 30.66 27.29 42.05 0.73 0.49 0.45 0.29
    C 2724.20 沙一段 nC16 1.23 0.68 0.96 0.81 0.47 0.84 1.21 0.18 0.35 31.03 24.12 44.85 0.69 0.40 0.26 0.12
    C 2725.00 沙一段 nC16 1.17 0.70 1.02 0.71 0.42 1.36 1.26 0.09 0.10 26.60 20.19 53.21 0.50 0.33 0.23 0.10
    c 2726.30 沙一段 nC16 1.44 0.70 0.92 0.78 0.42 1.02 1.18 0.20 0.37 28.09 23.33 48.58 0.58 0.39 0.26 0.11
    c 2727.30 沙一段 nC16 1.53 0.74 1.03 0.63 0.42 0.85 0.89 0.23 0.74 30.53 24.75 44.72 0.68 0.41 0.27 0.13
    D 3356.05 沙三段 nC23 1.15 1.07 1.37 0.55 0.44 0.21 0.54 0.05 1.21 42.79 17.64 39.57 1.08 0.39 0.47 0.92
    D 3357.05 沙三段 nC23 1.20 1.08 1.41 0.59 0.46 0.16 0.48 0.06 1.31 44.51 17.89 37.60 1.18 0.42 0.47 0.85
    D 3359.20 沙三段 nC23 1.16 1.11 1.24 0.53 0.44 0.41 1.27 0.05 1.37 35.48 21.29 43.23 0.82 0.51 0.42 0.20
    D 3412.60 沙三段 nC15 1.04 1.08 1.42 0.50 0.41 0.46 1.21 0.05 0.98 35.41 22.33 42.26 0.84 0.38 0.49 0.81
    D 3414.20 沙三段 nC16 1.04 1.04 1.61 0.52 0.38 0.67 1.40 0.04 1.08 34.10 19.59 46.30 0.74 0.43 0.47 0.80
    D 3416.40 沙三段 nC16 1.05 0.98 1.63 0.54 0.35 0.67 1.43 0.05 1.01 36.92 21.99 41.09 0.90 0.41 0.51 0.71
    D 3419.90 沙三段 nC21 1.06 1.02 1.55 0.44 0.32 0.67 1.35 0.05 1.11 32.30 20.26 47.44 0.68 0.50 0.44 0.37
    D 3422.75 沙三段 nC16 1.06 0.98 1.59 0.47 0.33 0.55 1.23 0.05 1.26 31.65 20.26 48.09 0.66 0.48 0.42 0.35
    D 3423.99 沙三段 nC16 1.09 1.01 1.66 0.47 0.32 0.67 1.23 0.05 1.11 32.38 20.28 47.34 0.68 0.49 0.43 0.38
    D 3426.40 沙三段 nC18 1.09 0.64 1.13 0.66 0.37 0.59 0.88 0.05 1.21 32.50 21.32 46.18 0.70 0.52 0.45 0.35
    D 3662.20 沙三段 nC25 1.19 1.11 1.50 0.66 0.40 0.36 0.59 0.06 1.30 49.14 21.08 29.77 1.65 0.50 0.58 0.44
    D 3665.20 沙三段 nC25 1.13 1.10 1.79 0.76 0.34 0.93 0.46 0.05 1.60 43.80 24.11 32.09 1.36 0.52 0.51 0.14
    E 3543.81 沙三段 nC23 1.36 1.07 1.14 0.49 0.44 0.18 1.79 0.06 0.92 37.43 19.96 42.61 0.88 0.47 0.40 0.32
    E 3545.73 沙三段 nC19 1.14 1.28 1.17 0.53 0.47 0.33 1.17 0.07 0.89 37.60 20.88 41.52 0.91 0.47 0.40 0.27
    E 3657.45 沙三段 nC17 1.11 1.04 1.28 0.33 0.30 1.04 1.37 0.07 1.03 40.99 22.38 36.62 1.12 0.39 0.52 0.64
    E 3658.83 沙三段 nC16 1.13 0.95 1.66 0.39 0.30 0.87 1.11 0.07 0.83 39.17 21.29 39.54 0.99 0.40 0.52 0.71
    E 3660.60 沙三段 nC15 1.14 1.69 1.44 0.36 0.28 0.82 1.27 0.05 0.92 39.88 21.58 38.54 1.03 0.38 0.49 0.61
    E 3677.50 沙三段 nC16 1.08 0.54 1.69 0.49 0.39 0.93 1.26 0.03 0.75 35.54 24.49 39.97 0.89 0.44 0.48 1.85
    E 3683.54 沙三段 nC16 1.11 0.91 2.12 0.48 0.33 1.12 1.39 0.05 0.95 37.14 21.71 41.14 0.90 0.43 0.50 0.86
    E 3684.50 沙三段 nCl7 1.02 0.99 1.66 0.41 0.27 0.95 1.26 0.03 0.97 38.33 21.46 40.21 0.95 0.41 0.51 0.82
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  渤中凹陷古近系烃源岩生物标志化合物参数组合

    Table  4.   Biomarker parameter combinations of Paleogene source rocks in Bozhong Sag

    层位 Pr/Ph Ga/C30H 4-MS/C29ST C24TeT/C26TT 优势规则甾烷
    特征 分布 特征 分布 特征 分布 特征 分布
    东三段 1.11~2.09 0.03~0.08 0.16~0.29 0.95~1.98 C29
    沙一段 1.02~1.23 0.18~0.23 0.10~0.13 0.89~1.21 C27、C29
    沙三段 1.13~2.12 0.03~0.07 0.14~1.85 中等 0.76~1.79 C27
    下载: 导出CSV
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