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伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿作用研究进展

冉子龙 李艳军

冉子龙, 李艳军. 伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿作用研究进展[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(2): 13-23. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0018
引用本文: 冉子龙, 李艳军. 伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿作用研究进展[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(2): 13-23. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0018
Ran Zilong, Li Yanjun. Research advances on rare metal pegmatite deposits[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(2): 13-23. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0018
Citation: Ran Zilong, Li Yanjun. Research advances on rare metal pegmatite deposits[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(2): 13-23. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0018

伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿作用研究进展

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0018
基金项目: 

中央高校基本科研业务费“地学长江计划”核心项目群资助项目 CUGCJ1817

国家自然科学基金项目 41672083

详细信息
    作者简介:

    冉子龙(1996—), 男, 现正攻读矿产普查与勘探专业硕士学位, 主要从事矿产勘查与评价研究工作。E-mail: 1466751115@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    李艳军(1982—), 男, 副教授, 主要从事矿床地球化学、成矿规律与成矿预测的教学和科研工作。E-mail: liyj@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P618.6

Research advances on rare metal pegmatite deposits

  • 摘要: 伟晶岩型矿床是世界上重要的稀有金属矿床类型之一,也是当前国际矿床学研究热点之一。近年来该类稀有金属矿床在分类、成矿流体及成矿物质来源、伟晶岩成岩方式和稀有金属富集机制等方面的研究取得了一些重要进展。伟晶岩通常与母质岩浆具有密切的时空关系,但不少也与母质岩浆无成因关系。伟晶岩稀有金属矿床成矿熔体/流体具有低黏度、富水、高分散性、富碱等性质,可导致P、F和B等元素在伟晶岩中的极端富集,使其与稀有金属组成各类络合物或化合物而迁移与富集。富含Li-Cs-Ta(LCT)型伟晶岩与S型花岗岩关系紧密,成矿物质主要起源于黑色页岩等海相沉积物质,而富含Nb-Y-F(NYF)型伟晶岩常与A型花岗岩联系紧密,属同源岩浆演化和矿化。花岗质岩浆分异结晶和地壳或地幔岩石的部分熔融是伟晶岩两种主要的形成方式。流体不混溶作用、富助熔组分花岗岩浆高度结晶分异和热液交代作用3种富集机制可用于解释伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床的形成。

     

  • 图 1  部分与Li矿床有关的伟晶岩温度-压力条件(引自文献[16])

    Spd.锂辉石;Qtz.石英;Pet.透锂长石;Ecr.锂霞石

    Figure 1.  Temperature-pressure conditions of Li pegmatite deposits

    图 2  与S型花岗岩深成岩体有关的LCT型伟晶岩及矿化分带[46]

    Figure 2.  Zonation of LCT-type pegmatites and mineralization related to S-type granites

    图 3  与母岩体不同关系的伟晶岩形成的地壳剖面对比示意图[14]

    Figure 3.  Schematic crustal profile illustrating the contrasting controls on the formation of pegmatites in a pluton-related and a pluton-unrelated scenario

    图 4  阿尔泰造山带伟晶岩深熔成因模式示意图[49]

    Figure 4.  Sketch anatexis petrogenesis model of pegmatites in the Altay orogenic belt

    图 5  组分[x(H2O)]-温度假二元系的不混溶线中A型和B型熔体包裹体的关系[19]

    Figure 5.  Relationship of type-A and type-B melt inclusions in a temperature versus H2O concentration diagram in the pseudo-binary silicate melt-H2O system

    图 6  伟晶岩成矿流体组成带纯化(CZR)示意图[18]

    Figure 6.  Sketch of constitutional zone refining of ore-forming fluids in pegmatitic system

    表  1  部分伟晶岩型Li和Nb-Ta矿床成矿温度及盐度统计(修改自文献[16, 21])

    Table  1.   Statistics of metallogenic temperature and salinity of some Li and Nb-Ta pegmatite deposits

    矿床 主要矿物 包裹体类型 Th, CO2/℃ Th, TOT/℃ Tm, clath/℃ Tm, ice/℃ w(NaCl)/%
    扎乌龙 辉石 富子晶 16.5~29.4 >500 5.3~9.6 0.8~8.5
    CO2-NaCl-H2O 16.5~29.4 278~412 3.0~6.5 6.6~11.9
    石英 CO2-NaCl-H2O 15.3~28.4 287~419 4.1~7.4 4.4~9.6
    NaCl-H2O 203~302 -6.7~-1.6 2.7~13.9
    甲基卡
    134号脉
    辉石 富子晶 26~28 500~720 0~10 6.0
    CO2-NaCl-H2O 26~28 250~400 0~10 7.0
    NaCl-H2O 245~365
    石英 CO2-NaCl-H2O 19.3~28.0 246~415 3.5~8.2 3.7~10.8
    NaCl-H2O 190~376
    绿柱石 富子晶 460~480
    可可托海 石英 熔体 720~830
    CO2-NaCl-H2O 310~360
    NaCl-H2O 145~255
    Tanco 斜长石 富子晶 370~470
    石英 CO2-NaCl-H2O 260~330
    仁里 文象结构带 NaCl-H2O 186~224 -0.8~-3.8 1.4~6.2
    微斜长石-钠长石带 NaCl-H2O 174~215 -2.7~-4.0 4.5~6.9
    白云母-钠长石带 NaCl-H2O 190~253 -2.0~-4.0 1.7~6.7
    锰铝榴石-钠长石带 260~304 -3.8~-6.2 6.2~9.5
    锂云母-石英 259~301 -5.0~-7.61 7.9~11.2
    注:Th, CO2为CO2相的均一温度;Th, TOT为流体包裹体的总均一温度;Tm, clath为CO2-H2O包裹体的最终熔融温度;Tm, ice为冰的最终熔融温度
    下载: 导出CSV
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