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转换型边缘盆地转换边缘类型识别与特征分析: 以非洲科特迪瓦盆地为例

盖海洋 姜烨 张科 王伟

盖海洋, 姜烨, 张科, 王伟. 转换型边缘盆地转换边缘类型识别与特征分析: 以非洲科特迪瓦盆地为例[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 83-90. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0033
引用本文: 盖海洋, 姜烨, 张科, 王伟. 转换型边缘盆地转换边缘类型识别与特征分析: 以非洲科特迪瓦盆地为例[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 83-90. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0033
Gai Haiyang, Jiang Ye, Zhang Ke, Wang Wei. Recognition and characteristic analysis of the transition boundary for transform marginal basin: A case of Cote d'Ivoire Basin, Africa[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 83-90. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0033
Citation: Gai Haiyang, Jiang Ye, Zhang Ke, Wang Wei. Recognition and characteristic analysis of the transition boundary for transform marginal basin: A case of Cote d'Ivoire Basin, Africa[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 83-90. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0033

转换型边缘盆地转换边缘类型识别与特征分析: 以非洲科特迪瓦盆地为例

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0033
基金项目: 

国家科技重大专项"非洲重点区油气勘探潜力综合评价" 2017ZX05032-002

详细信息
    作者简介:

    盖海洋(1982-), 男, 工程师, 主要从事海外油气勘探工作。E-mail: 119946880@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P618.130.2

Recognition and characteristic analysis of the transition boundary for transform marginal basin: A case of Cote d'Ivoire Basin, Africa

  • 摘要: 转换型边缘盆地是一类特殊的大陆边缘盆地,前人对其研究较少,随着近十几年在转换型边缘盆地的一系列重大油气发现,该类型盆地越来越受到重视。但在盆地边缘转换断层的识别解释、转换断层对盆地构造格局的影响以及转换断层相关的火山活动对盆地的影响方面等研究仍相对较少。以典型的转换型边缘盆地——科特迪瓦盆地为研究对象,从盆地的转换边缘入手,利用多种数据综合分析,识别出转换型边缘盆地的两类转换边缘——转换型边缘和过渡离散型边缘,并分别总结了其各自特征;对比了两类转换型边缘在地层发育、断裂体系、火山活动以及应力场等方面存在的差异及其对盆地造成的影响。研究结果表明,典型的转换型边缘盆地具有转换型边缘和过渡离散型边缘两种不同类型的洋陆过渡边缘;两类边缘在接触关系、火山活动强度、对早期地层的改造作用等方面具有显著差异;转换型边缘盆地结构受早期断裂和转换断裂的双重控制,受多期构造运动改造,拉张与走滑应力叠加,使早期断裂具有走滑和拉张双重性质,多期的改造作用对油气运聚及保存具有显著影响。转换断层附近早期断裂可能会发生反转作用,断裂性质发生改变,形成挤压构造或地层反转。

     

  • 图 1  科特迪瓦盆地展布特征及油气田分布图

    Figure 1.  Distribution characteristics of the Cote d′Ivoire Basin and oil-gas discoveries

    图 2  科特迪瓦盆地构造演化期次划分和地层充填

    Figure 2.  Division of structural evolution stages and stratum filling of the Cote d′Ivoire Basin

    图 3  洋壳反射典型地震剖面

    Figure 3.  Reflection characteristics of oceanic crust on typical seismic section

    图 4  科特迪瓦盆地洋壳和陆壳直接接触的转换型边缘示意图

    a.转换边缘典型地震剖面; b.转换型陆缘盆地模型; c.转换边缘分布; d.现今海底地形

    Figure 4.  Diagram of transitional boundary between oceanic and continental crusts of Cote d′Ivoire Basin

    图 5  洋壳和陆壳之间过渡接触的过渡离散型边缘的典型地震剖面

    Figure 5.  Typical seismic section of transitional contact with a gentle transitional boundary

    图 6  转换型边缘区火山活动特征

    Figure 6.  Characteristics of volcanic activities of the transitional marginal area

    图 7  过渡离散型边缘火山活动特征

    a.洋陆变形期火成岩地震识别; b.火成岩对地层的破坏作用; c.火山活动导致地层反转; d.早期裂谷被转换期走滑作用伴生的岩浆侵入改造后形成了分隔的次级凹陷

    Figure 7.  Characteristics of volcanic activity in gentle transitional boundary

    图 8  早期裂谷发育区布格重力异常图

    Figure 8.  Anomaly map of the Bouguer gravity in the early period in rift areas

    图 9  展示转换断裂改造作用的典型地震剖面

    Figure 9.  Typical seismic section caused by fracture reformation

    表  1  科特迪瓦盆地两类转换边缘特征的对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of two types transformation boundary

    边缘类型 转换型边缘 过渡离散型边缘
    地层特征 沉积地层发育范围窄, 厚度有突变, 并且缺少早期地层 地层发育范围广, 厚度变化缓慢, 发育陆壳逐渐向海减薄的“缩颈段”
    断裂体系 主要发育直接分隔洋壳和陆壳的陡直转换断裂 发育坡度较缓的转换断裂及受转换断裂改造重新活化的裂谷期断裂
    火山分布 西部岩浆侵入规模较小, 仅局限在转换断层附近, 对构造和地层改造作用弱 岩浆发育范围广, 改造早期构造和地层, 多条深大断裂均可作为岩浆通道
    应力场 以剪切应力为主 剪切应力和拉张应力共同作用
    洋陆壳过渡关系 以转换断层为界, 洋壳和陆壳呈突变接触 存在过渡带, 陆壳向海逐渐减薄, 洋壳和陆壳渐变接触
    下载: 导出CSV
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