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甘肃省车路沟北金矿找矿方向探讨: 来自阿尔金断裂带东段“金三角”金矿控矿因素对比研究的启迪

刘彦良 高雅 魏金栋

刘彦良, 高雅, 魏金栋. 甘肃省车路沟北金矿找矿方向探讨: 来自阿尔金断裂带东段“金三角”金矿控矿因素对比研究的启迪[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 198-209. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0034
引用本文: 刘彦良, 高雅, 魏金栋. 甘肃省车路沟北金矿找矿方向探讨: 来自阿尔金断裂带东段“金三角”金矿控矿因素对比研究的启迪[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 198-209. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0034
Liu Yanliang, Gao Ya, Wei Jindong. A discussion of prospecting direction for the Chelugoubei Gold Deposit in Gansu Province: The enlightening from contrast analysis of the geological conditions of 'Golden Triangle' gold deposits in eastern segment of Altyn fault shearing zones[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 198-209. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0034
Citation: Liu Yanliang, Gao Ya, Wei Jindong. A discussion of prospecting direction for the Chelugoubei Gold Deposit in Gansu Province: The enlightening from contrast analysis of the geological conditions of "Golden Triangle" gold deposits in eastern segment of Altyn fault shearing zones[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 198-209. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0034

甘肃省车路沟北金矿找矿方向探讨: 来自阿尔金断裂带东段“金三角”金矿控矿因素对比研究的启迪

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0034
基金项目: 中央补助地方地质勘查基金项目"甘肃省玉门市车路沟金矿普查"
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘彦良(1983-), 男, 高级工程师, 主要从事地质矿产勘查和研究工作。E-mail: 317510246@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    高雅(1985-), 女, 工程师, 主要从事数学地质和英文文献研究工作。E-mail: 442465357@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P618.51

A discussion of prospecting direction for the Chelugoubei Gold Deposit in Gansu Province: The enlightening from contrast analysis of the geological conditions of "Golden Triangle" gold deposits in eastern segment of Altyn fault shearing zones

  • 摘要: 甘肃省玉门市车路沟北金矿地处北祁连造山带西端和阿尔金韧性剪切带东段交汇部位,是区域上著名的西北"金三角"。该矿的形成与阿尔金左行韧性剪切带关系密切并且产出受其次级分支断裂带的控制;古生界在区域上普遍含金较高,是该矿主要的矿源层;区域岩浆活动强烈,与金矿(化)体紧密伴生,车路沟花岗闪长杂岩体为该矿形成提供热源和部分矿源。结合区域成矿背景,采用区域矿床综合类比的方法,详细对比了车路沟北金矿区和寒山金矿、鹰嘴山金矿、滴水山金矿、牛毛泉东金矿、胡湾子金矿、南湖西金矿、红口子金矿、车路沟金矿以及昌马金矿等"金三角"金矿在地层-构造-岩浆岩-物化遥异常特征等控矿因素以及矿体、矿石、围岩蚀变等矿床地质特征等等方面的情况。研究结果表明:车路沟北金矿和上述诸金矿控矿因素基本类同,矿床地质特征极其相似,作为"金三角"金矿带在北东方向上的延伸,具备深部隐伏较大规模矿床的潜力。在此基础上进一步系统总结了"金三角"金矿的找矿模型,探讨了找矿标志和找矿方向。研究成果能对本矿区以及北祁连地区构造蚀变岩型金矿床进一步的勘查工作有所启迪。

     

  • 图 1  区域地质矿产及大地构造位置图

    1.第四系;2.上新统疏勒河组;3.下白垩统新民堡群;4.上石炭统太原组;5.上志留统旱峡组;6.中志留统泉脑沟山组;7.中奥陶统妖魔山组;8.下奥陶统阴沟群;9.中寒武统黑刺沟组;10.辉绿辉长岩;11.闪长岩;12.花岗闪长岩;13.花岗岩;14.金矿床(点);15.铜矿床(点);16.铁矿床(点);17.正断层;18.逆断层;19.左行走滑断层;20.地质界线;21.山峰位置及名称;22.地名;23.大地构造位置示意;24.矿区位置示意;25.“金三角”(GT)范围;26.成矿(矿石)年龄/侵入岩(围岩)年龄

    Figure 1.  Sketch of tectonic and geological and minerals map of the study area

    图 2  车路沟北金矿地质略图

    1.第四系;2.上新统疏勒河组;3.上石炭统太原组;4.中志留统泉脑沟山组;5.下奥陶统阴沟群;6.闪长岩;7.花岗闪长岩;8.花岗岩;9.闪长岩脉;10.石英脉;11.金矿体;12.钨钼矿(化)体;13.地质界线;14.推测性质不明断层及其编号;15.正断层及其编号;16.逆断层及其编号;17.左行走滑断层及其编号;18.化探综合异常及其编号;19.激电异常及其编号;20.产状;21.实测地质剖面及其编号;22.地名

    Figure 2.  Geological map of Chelugoubei Gold Deposit

    图 3  车路沟北金矿区实测联合地质物化探综合剖面图

    1.第四系;2.上新统疏勒河组;3.上石炭统太原组;4.中志留统泉脑沟山组;5.下奥陶统阴沟群;6.闪长岩;7.花岗闪长岩;8.石英脉;9.逆冲断层破碎带;10.正断层破碎带;11.平移断层破碎带;12.金矿体及其编号;13.产状;14.冲洪积物;15.砂砾岩;16.炭质页岩;17.灰岩夹大理岩;18.钙质板岩;19.粉砂岩;20.粗砂岩;21.安山质晶屑岩屑凝灰岩;22.安山质晶屑岩屑角砾凝灰岩;23.糜棱岩化安山质凝灰岩;24.砂质板岩;25.角砾状硅质岩;26.闪长岩;27.花岗闪长岩;28.探槽、坑道及其编号;29.钻孔

    Figure 3.  Measured joint countermeasures sections of geological, geochemical and geophysical in Chelugoubei Gold Deposit

    图 4  “金三角”金矿主要矿石结构构造照片

    a.车路沟北金矿区粒状结构、浸染状黄钾铁矾化石英脉矿石中自形的黄铁矿;b.车路沟北金矿区粒状结构、硅化花岗闪长岩矿石,构造错断石英脉;c.寒山金矿区粒状结构、浸染状黄铁矿化硅化安山质凝灰岩矿石;d.寒山金矿区粒状结构、糜棱岩化硅化安山质凝灰岩矿石,构造错断石英脉;e.滴水山矿区粒状结构蚀变花岗闪长岩矿石;f.滴水山矿区粒状结构强硅化蚀变含金石英细脉状矿石;g.牛毛泉东金矿区网脉浸染状矿石;h.牛毛泉东金矿区黄铁绢英岩型矿石;i.车路沟北金矿区孔雀石沿裂隙充填交代黄铜矿的交代残留结构和褐铁矿交代黄铜矿形成溶蚀边结构和交代残留结构;j.车路沟北金矿区褐铁矿交代黄铜矿、黑铜矿形成假像晶洞结构、溶蚀边结构和交代残留结构,黑铜矿沿裂隙充填形成交代结构;k.车路沟北金矿区褐铁矿交代黄铜矿形成溶蚀边结构和交代残留结构,自然金的半自形晶粒状结构;l.车路沟北金矿区方解石脉、黄铁矿脉充填形成的交代结构(+);m.滴水山金矿区自形晶结构、环边结构黄铁矿产于石英脉中,见有晚期毒砂(-);n.滴水山金矿区褐铁矿交代黄铁矿形成的交代残留结构,毒砂交代黄铁矿的假像晶型结构;o.滴水山金矿区黄铁矿交代黄铜矿形成的交代残留结构和假像晶型结构,毒砂、磁铁矿交代黄铁矿形成的交代残留结构;p.滴水山金矿区方解石脉、石英脉充填形成的交代结构和蛇纹石化现象(+)。Gl.自然金;Py.黄铁矿;Lm.褐铁矿;Tt.黑铜矿;Cal.方解石;Qtz.石英;Chl.绿泥石;Ccp.黄铜矿;Mal.孔雀石;Apy.毒砂;Sp.磁铁矿;Ser.蛇纹石

    Figure 4.  Photographs of ore samples from "golden triangle" gold deposits

    图 5  车路沟北金矿找矿模型图[11]

    1 . 断裂;2 . 金矿体;3 . 闪长岩;4. 花岗闪长岩;5 . 花岗岩;6 . 大气降水
    (海水) ;7 . 含金构造热卤水;8. 含金深源岩浆热液

    Figure 5.  Mineralization model of Chelugoubei Gold Deposit

    表  1  阿尔金断裂带东段(北祁连造山带西段)主要“金三角”金矿床成矿时代及有关侵入岩成岩时代统计表

    Table  1.   Metallogenetic epoch for main "golden triangle" gold deposits and diagenetic epoch of intrusives related to mineralization in east part of Altyn fault shearing zones(north Qilian orogenic belts)

    矿床名称 成矿时代 侵入岩成岩时代
    样品性质 年龄/Ma 测试方法 样品位置及岩性 年龄/Ma 测试方法
    鹰嘴山金矿 含金硅化次生石英岩 413±5[22] 全岩Rb-Sr法 矿区南约1 km辉长岩, 矿体北侧闪长玢岩 加里东晚期无年龄, 但沿控矿断裂侵位 锆石U-Pb法
    寒山金矿 11号含金石英脉 395±46[1, 17] Rb-Sr等时线法 矿区南约5 km白山子花岗闪长岩 370±25[1, 22]
    11号含金石英脉 303±10[1, 16] Rb-Sr等时线法 矿区南界闪长岩
    青山花岗闪长岩
    320.40[1, 16]
    黄铁绢英岩 339±10[1, 21] Rb-Sr等时线法 矿区寒山辉长岩 347.1±6.4[1, 23]
    黄铁绢英岩 213.9±3.1[13] 云母K-Ar法 矿区北约55 km巴个峡花岗闪长岩 481±10[13]
    石英绢云母岩 224.4±3.3[13] 云母K-Ar法
    含金石英脉 372±8[1] Rb-Sr等时线法
    黄铁绢英岩 302.5±1.8[1, 11] 绢云母Ar-Ar坪年龄 矿区南部闪长岩体 390.4±9.5[1, 11]
    牛毛泉东金矿 黄铁绢英岩 296.7±2.8[1, 11] 绢云母Ar-Ar坪年龄 矿区南部闪长岩体 390.4±9.5[1, 11]
    滴水山(阳凹大泉)金矿 安山质晶屑凝灰岩 479.7±6.9[8-9] 锆石U-Pb法 矿区花岗闪长岩 426.9±6.7[8-9]
    黄铁绢英岩 482.7±9.5[8-9] 锆石U-Pb法 矿区花岗闪长岩 440~370[8-9]
    车路沟金矿 含金石英脉 253±61[22-23] Rb-Sr等时线法 容矿英安斑岩 427.7±4.5[22-23]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  阿尔金断裂带东段(北祁连造山带西段)主要“金三角”金矿床(点)主要特征简表[1, 4-9, 11, 22, 32-33]

    Table  2.   Major features of main gold deposits and mineral occurrences of "golden triangle" in east part of Altyn fault shearing zones(north Qilian Orogenic belts)

    名称 规模 与岩浆活动关系 含矿地层 控矿构造 矿体形态 矿石特征 围岩蚀变
    主岩体岩性 伴生岩脉 时代 主要岩性 矿物成分 结构 构造
    寒山 大型 闪长岩+花岗闪长杂岩体 χ, δμ, γδ, γ, q, ζπ O1+2 Bt, Ph, Sl, MSs, ml, αμ 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+节理裂隙+劈理化带 似层状、网脉状、条带状、透镜状 自然金、自然铜、黄铁矿、毒砂、方铅矿、黄铜矿、闪锌矿、石英、绢云母、阳起石、绿泥石、黄钾铁矾、重晶石、方解石、明矾等 他形-半自形中粗粒晶粒状结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、黄铁绢英岩化、高岭土化、褐铁矿化、碳酸盐化、黄钾铁钒化、绿泥石化
    鹰嘴山 中型 花岗闪长岩体+辉长辉绿岩脉 χ, q, γπ, δμ, βμ 2 Bt, Ph, Sl, MSs, Ls, Cg, ml 脆韧性剪切带+节理裂隙+劈理化带 似层状、透镜状、网脉状 黄铁矿、方铅矿、黄铜矿、隐晶硅质、石英、长石、绿泥石等 他形-半自形中粗粒晶粒状结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、黄铁绢英岩化、黄铁矿化、高岭土化、褐铁矿化、碳酸盐化、黄钾铁矾化
    滴水山 中型 闪长岩+花岗闪长岩体 χ, q, δμ, βμ O1+2 Bt, α, Sl, Ls, Cg, ml 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+劈理化带 似层状、透镜状、网脉状 黄铁矿、毒砂为主,其次为黄铜矿、闪锌矿、磁黄铁矿、自然金、银金矿、石英、方解石、高岭土、绿泥石等 他形-半自形中粗粒晶粒状结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、绢云母化、黄钾铁矾化、黏土化、黄铁绢英岩化、碳酸盐化
    牛毛泉东 中型 辉长辉绿岩脉+花岗闪长岩体 χ, q, δμ, βμ, Mb O1 Bt, α, Sl, Ls, Cg, ml 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+劈理化带 似层状、透镜状、网脉状 矿石矿物为自然金、黄铁矿、黄铜矿、孔雀石、毒砂等,脉石矿物主要有石英、玉髓、绢云母、方解石、长石、绿泥石、黄钾铁矾、胆矾、褐铁矿等 凝灰结构、粒状变晶结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、黄铁绢英岩化、黄铁矿化、高岭土化、褐铁矿化、碳酸盐化、黄钾铁矾化
    胡湾子 小型 花岗闪长岩体+辉长辉绿岩脉 χ, q, γπ, δμ, βμ 2 Bt, Ph, Sl, MSs, Ls, Cg, ml 脆韧性剪切带+节理裂隙+劈理化带 似层状、脉状、网脉状 黄铁矿、方铅矿、黄铜矿、石英、长石、绿泥石 他形-半自形中粗粒晶粒状结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 黄铁矿化、硅化、绢云母化、黄钾铁钒化、绿泥石化
    南湖西 小型 辉长辉绿岩脉+花岗闪长岩体 χ, q, δ, γδ, βμ, ζπ O1 Bt, MSs, MMs, Sl, Cg, ml 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+劈理化带 似层状、脉状、透镜状 黄铁矿、褐铁矿、毒砂、黄钾铁矾、钼钙矿、辉钼矿、自然金、方铅矿、闪锌矿等 凝灰结构、粒状变晶结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、黄铁绢英岩化、黄铁矿化、绢云母化、高岭土化、黄钾铁矾化
    红口子 小型 辉长辉绿岩脉+花岗闪长岩体 χ, q, δμ, βμ, Mb, ζπ O1 Bt, α, Sl, Ls, Cg, ml 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+劈理化带 似层状、脉状、透镜状 金、黄铁矿、黄铜矿、孔雀石、毒砂、石英、玉髓、绢云母、方解石、长石、绿泥石、黄钾铁矾 凝灰结构、粒状变晶结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、黄铁矿化、绢云母化、碳酸盐化
    车路沟 小型 闪长岩+花岗闪长岩体 χ, δμ, βμ, q, ζπ O1+2 Bt, Sl, MSs, Ls, Cg, ml 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+节理裂隙+劈理化带 似层状、脉状、网脉状 黄铜矿、黄铁矿、斑铜矿、含银自然金及银金矿、石英、铁白云石、绢云母、铜蓝、孔雀石及褐铁矿 他形-半自形中粗粒晶粒状结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、绢云母化、黄铁矿化、黄钾铁矾化
    昌马 小型 闪长岩+花岗闪长岩体 χ, q, δμ, βμ, ζπ O1 Bt, Sl, MSs, Ls, Cg, ml 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+劈理化带 脉状、豆荚状、小透镜状 褐铁矿、黄钾铁钒、黄铁矿、自然金、毒砂、孔雀石、黄铜矿、石英、方解石、石膏、绢云母、绿泥石 他形-半自形中粗粒晶粒状结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 褐铁矿化、黄铁矿化、硅化、绢云母化、高岭土化、黄钾铁矾化
    车路沟北 小型 闪长岩+花岗闪长岩体 χ, δμ, βμ, q, ζπ O1+S2+C2 Bt, Sl, MSs, Ls, Cg, ml, CMs, ζπ, αμ, βμ, q 断裂+脆韧性剪切带+节理裂隙+劈理化带 似层状、脉状、网脉状 褐铁矿、黄铁矿、黄铜矿、孔雀石及自然金、白钨矿、石英、方解石 他形-半自形中粗粒晶粒状结构为主 稀疏浸染状构造为主,次为网脉状构造 硅化、黄铁矿化、绢云母化、绿泥石化、碳酸盐化、褐铁矿化、高岭石化、黄钾铁钒化等
    注:χ.煌斑岩脉;γ.花岗岩脉;γπ.花岗斑岩脉;δμ.闪长玢岩脉;γδ.花岗闪长岩脉;ζπ.英安斑岩脉;βμ.辉绿辉长玢岩脉; Ph.千枚岩、粉砂质千枚岩;Ls.灰岩;Mb.大理岩、Bt.凝灰岩、安山质凝灰岩;Sl.钙质板岩、凝灰质板岩、粉砂质板岩;MSs.变质砂岩、变质粉砂岩; Cg.变质砾岩; ml.糜棱岩;α.安山岩; αμ.安山玢岩; CMs.炭山质泥岩;MMs.变质泥岩
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-24

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