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百色盆地渐新世古植被与古气候

韦一 杨兵 邓会娟

韦一, 杨兵, 邓会娟. 百色盆地渐新世古植被与古气候[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(4): 197-206. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0078
引用本文: 韦一, 杨兵, 邓会娟. 百色盆地渐新世古植被与古气候[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(4): 197-206. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0078
Wei Yi, Yang Bing, Deng Huijuan. Paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the Baise Basin during Oligocene[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(4): 197-206. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0078
Citation: Wei Yi, Yang Bing, Deng Huijuan. Paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the Baise Basin during Oligocene[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(4): 197-206. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0078

百色盆地渐新世古植被与古气候

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0078
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41702366

中央高校基本科研业务费 3142018004

详细信息
    作者简介:

    韦一(1989—),女,讲师,主要从事新生代微体古生物研究工作。E-mail: ostracods@126.com

    通讯作者:

    邓会娟(1966—),女,高级工程师,主要从事地质矿产勘查及实物地质资料管理工作。E-mail: denghj66@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P534.61;P532

Paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the Baise Basin during Oligocene

  • 摘要:

    为恢复百色盆地渐新世古植被面貌并重建古气候, 对该盆地伏平组孢粉化石进行了采样、分析、鉴定, 共获得孢粉化石34属, 并划分为2个组合: (Ⅰ) Abietineaepollenites-Quercoidites-Polypodiaceaesporites组合; (Ⅱ) Abietineaepollenites-Pinuspollenites-Pediastrum组合。组合Ⅰ时代为渐新世Rupelian中期; 组合Ⅱ时代为渐新世Rupelian晚期至Chattian早期。植被面貌变化为: 针阔混交林, 底部生长着蕨类植被→针叶林。通过孢粉组合属性特征的研究得出孢粉组合Ⅰ代表了亚热带湿润性气候, 湿度相对较大; 孢粉组合Ⅱ代表了亚热带较湿润性气候。通过共存因子分析得出: 在渐新世Rupelian中期至Chattian早期时间段内百色盆地年均降雨量(MAP)在797.5~1 293.7 mm之间, 年均温度(MAT)在11.3~22.6℃之间, 为北亚热带气候特征。而现在的百色盆地位于南亚热带(年均温度: 22.0℃, 年均降雨量: 1 070.5 mm), 二者的差异可能与新生代印度板块与亚洲板块碰撞所造成的亚洲板块"右旋"有关。

     

  • 图 1  研究区地质简图

    1.第四系; 2.渐新统建都岭组; 3.渐新统伏平组; 4.始新统百岗组; 5.始新统那读组; 6.上白垩统罗文组; 7.中三叠统百峰组; 8.中三叠统兰木组; 9.上二叠统合山组; 10.中二叠统栖霞组-茅口组; 11.上石炭统-二叠系马平组; 12.下-上石炭统大埔组; 13.下石炭统英塘组; 14.上泥盆统融县组; 15.断层; 16.角度不整合; 17.研究剖面; 18.县镇

    Figure 1.  Geological sketch of the study area

    图 2  百色盆地田东剖面渐新世伏平组柱状图

    Figure 2.  Stratigraphic column of the Oligocene Fuping Formation at the Tiandong section in the Baise Basin

    图 3  百色盆地田东剖面渐新统伏平组部分典型孢粉

    Figure 3.  Major representatives of spores and pollens from the Oligocene Fuping Formation at the Tiandong section in the Baise Basin

    1, 2.Polypodiaceaesporites; 3, 5.Tsugaepollenites; 4.Abietineaepollenites; 6.Pterisisporites; 7, 8.Betulaceoipollenites; 9. Quercoidites; 10.Pinuspollenites; 11.Cicatricosisporites; 12.Lonicerapollis; 13.Piceapollis; 14.Tricolpites; 15.Juglanspollenites; 16.Retitricolpites; 17.Polypodiisporites; 18.Ulmipollenites; 19.Graminidites

    图 4  百色盆地各气候期古植被面貌变迁示意图

    Figure 4.  Paleovegetation evolution of each climate stage during the Oligocene in the Baise Basin

    1.Abietineaepollenites; 2.Pinuspollenites; 3.Piceapollis; 4.Abiespollenites; 5.Dacrydiumites; 6.Podocarpidites; 7.Tsugaepollenites; 8.Quercoidites; 9.Ulmipollenites; 10.Juglanspollenites; 11.Caryapollenites; 12.Alnipollenites; 13.Ostryoipollenites; 14.Herbs; 15.Ferns; 16.Pediastrum

    图 5  百色盆地伏平组孢粉植物类群中种子植物类群年均温度和年均降雨量共存区间

    Figure 5.  Coexistence interval of mean annual temperature and mean annual rainfall of seed plants in palynofloras from the Fuping Formation in the Baise Basin

    图 6  渐新世深海温度变化曲线[1]与百色盆地气候期对比图(注:该曲线与全球温度变化趋势大体一致)

    Figure 6.  Comparison of deep sea temperature curves with climate stages in the Baise Basin during the Oligocene

    图 7  印度板块与亚洲板块碰撞前后古纬度图(据文献[26]修改)

    Figure 7.  Paleolatitude maps before and after the collision of the Indian plate and the Asian plate

    表  1  百色盆地伏平组孢粉及生态习性统计

    Table  1.   Ecological habits of the spores and pollens from the Fuping Formation in the Baise Basin

    孢粉类型 组合Ⅰ/% 组合Ⅱ/% 气候带类型 干湿度类型
    NG-1 NG-3 NG-5 NG-6
    裸子植物 松科 Pinuspollenites 2.4 7.2 5.1 14.8 温带-亚热带 中生
    Abietineaepollenites 20.6 22.6 62.2 64.3 温带-亚热带 中生
    Piceapollis 0.8 1.0 3.2 5.1 温带 湿润
    Abiespollenites 1.4 温带 湿润
    Tsugaepollenites 4.0 3.6 3.2 2.3 热带-亚热带 湿润
    罗汉松科 Podocarpidites 2.4 3.1 0.5 1.3 热带-亚热带 湿润
    Dacrydiumites 0.8 1.0 0.3 温带-亚热带 湿润
    杉科 Taxodiaceaepollenites 0.5 温带-亚热带 湿润
    被子植物(木本) 桦科 Betulaceoipollenites 0.5 亚热带-温带 湿润
    Carpinipites 0.9 温带 中生
    Ostryoipollenites 1.6 3.1 0.5 温带 中生
    Alnipollenites 1.6 2.1 温带-亚热带 湿润
    胡桃科 Juglanspollenites 2.4 1.0 2.3 0.6 亚热带-温带 中生
    Caryapollenites 2.4 2.1 0.5 1.6 热带-亚热带 中生
    Engelhardtioidites 0.5 0.3 热带-亚热带 中生
    榆科 Ulmipollenites 0.8 0.5 1.4 0.6 温带-亚热带 中生
    槭树科 Aceripollenites 0.3 温带-亚热带 中生
    壳斗科 Quercoidites 10.3 6.2 5.5 1.0 温带-亚热带 中生
    漆树科 Rhoipites 0.8 1.5 热带-亚热带 中生
    蕈树科 Liquidambarpollenites 4.1 0.5 0.6 热带-亚热带 中生
    忍冬科 Lonicerapollis 0.3 温带-亚热带 中生
    被子植物(草本) 禾本科 Graminidites 0.5 热带-亚热带 旱生
    唇形科 Labitricolpites 1.4 广温 中生
    百合科 Liliacidites 0.3 广温 中生
    科未定 Tricolpopollenites 0.8 0.5 0.5 1.6 亚热带 中生
    Retitricolpites 0.8 0.5 4.1 0.6 广温 中生
    Tricolpites 1.4 1.3 热带-亚热带 中生
    蕨类植物 凤尾蕨科 Pterisisporites 7.9 7.7 1.4 0.6 热带-亚热带 湿润
    水龙骨科 Polypodiisporites 9.5 9.2 0.9 0.6 热带-亚热带 湿润
    Polypodiaceaesporites 16.7 7.7 0.9 热带-亚热带 湿润
    Monolites 11.9 12.8 0.5 0.3 热带-亚热带 湿润
    Polypodiaceoisporites 2.6 热带-亚热带 湿润
    海金砂科 Lygodiumsporites 0.8 热带-亚热带 湿润
    Cicatricosisporites 0.3 热带-亚热带 湿润
    科未定 Deltoidospora 0.8 0.6 热带-亚热带 湿润
    藻类 水网藻科 Pediastrum 708(粒) 142(粒)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  百色盆地伏平组孢粉植物群和其现存最近亲缘类群以及其参数

    Table  2.   Palynofloras from the Fuping Formation in the Baise Basin and their nearest living relatives and their climatic amplitudes

    孢粉类型 现存最近亲缘类群 年均温度/℃ 年均降雨量/mm
    最小值 最大值 最小值 最大值
    裸子植物
    Pinuspollenites Pinus[17] -5.2 24.7 170.5 2 822.7
    Abietineaepollenites Abies[18] 2.8 23.0 170.5 1 785.2
    Piceapollis Picea[17] -4.9 22.7 291.6 1 815.6
    Tsugaepollenites Tsuga[19] -0.4 23.8 279.4 2 394.5
    Podocarpidites Podocarpus[17] 8.5 24.7 797.5 1 653.5
    Taxodiaceaepollenites Taxodiaceae[19] 5.7 24.7 459.5 2 447.1
    被子植物
    Betulaceoipollenites Betula[19] -4.9 23.2 291.6 1 815.6
    Carpinipites Carpinus[18] 2.3 25.5 570.3 1 785.2
    Ostryoipollenites Betulaceae[18] -4.9 23.2 291.6 1 815.6
    Alnipollenites Alnus[19] -5.2 23.8 355.2 2 394.5
    Juglanspollenites Juglans[19] -1.6 23.0 257.5 2 074.4
    Caryapollenites Carya[19] 11.3 22.6 601.1 1 942.5
    Engelhardtioidites Juglandaceae[19] -1.6 24.7 257.5 1 653.5
    Ulmipollenites Ulmus[19] -5.2 25.5 16.4 1 900.3
    Aceripollenites Acer[19] -1.1 24.0 115.0 2 559.0
    Quercoidites Quercus[19] -5.2 25.5 209.1 1 900.3
    Rhoipites Rhus[19] -0.4 23.8 277.6 2 394.4
    Liquidambarpollenites Liquidambar[20] 8.5 23.2 474.6 1 942.5
    Lonicerapollis Caprifoliaceae[18] -4.1 25.5 303.9 1 869.9
    Graminidites Gramineae[18] -4.9 25.5 303.9 2 447.1
    Labitricolpites Labiatae[18] -4.9 24.7 16.4 1 942.5
    Tricolpites Hamamelidaceae[18] 8.5 25.5 531.0 1 293.7
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-09-07

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