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大足石刻宝顶山砂岩毛细水迁移特性影响因素

宋佳航 严绍军 项伟 刘建辉 赵岗 蒋思维

宋佳航, 严绍军, 项伟, 刘建辉, 赵岗, 蒋思维. 大足石刻宝顶山砂岩毛细水迁移特性影响因素[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(4): 282-291. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0099
引用本文: 宋佳航, 严绍军, 项伟, 刘建辉, 赵岗, 蒋思维. 大足石刻宝顶山砂岩毛细水迁移特性影响因素[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(4): 282-291. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0099
Song Jiahang, Yan Shaojun, Xiang Wei, Liu Jianhui, Zhao Gang, Jiang Siwei. Influencing factors of capillary water migration characteristics of the sandstones in Baoding Mountain, Dazu Stone Carvings[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(4): 282-291. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0099
Citation: Song Jiahang, Yan Shaojun, Xiang Wei, Liu Jianhui, Zhao Gang, Jiang Siwei. Influencing factors of capillary water migration characteristics of the sandstones in Baoding Mountain, Dazu Stone Carvings[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(4): 282-291. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0099

大足石刻宝顶山砂岩毛细水迁移特性影响因素

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0099
详细信息
    作者简介:

    宋佳航(1990-), 女, 现正攻读地质工程专业博士学位, 主要从事岩土文物保护的研究工作。E-mail: songjh09@outlook.com

    通讯作者:

    严绍军(1973-), 男, 副教授, 主要从事文物本体特性、岩土文物风化机理、保护材料、保护工程勘察设计、岩土文物三维模型建立与力学分析、水害盐害治理等文物保护科技研究。E-mail: yansj@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P642

Influencing factors of capillary water migration characteristics of the sandstones in Baoding Mountain, Dazu Stone Carvings

  • 摘要:

    重庆大足宝顶山大佛湾石刻存在严重的毛细水害及毛细水带来的盐害、生物等衍生病害, 对该世界文化遗产的保护带来了长期负面作用。在对大佛湾进行现场调查的基础上, 将造像摩崖砂岩划分为3套地层: 卧佛上层砂岩、卧佛砂岩及卧佛下层砂岩。采用薄片鉴定、X射线衍射、化学成分测试、扫描电镜、压汞试验、卡斯特瓶法等方法, 分析了宝顶山砂岩的自身特性以及温湿度对毛细不水的影响。研究结果表明: 相对于卧佛上下层砂岩, 卧佛本体砂岩的成熟度最低, 孔隙率与孔隙的分布范围均最大, 为毛细水的迁移提供了相对好的条件; 卧佛本体砂岩毛细吸水能力及上升高度均为最好。同时, 毛细水的上升与环境温湿度、空气流通性密切相关; 在大足石刻的致密砂岩中, 大量的贯通性微小孔隙在毛细水迁移中并不能发挥作用, 卧佛本体砂岩有效孔隙直径应该在1 133.0 nm以上, 极端情况下可能达到760.2 nm。研究结果为准确认识大足石刻毛细水形成与演化提供了可靠的数据, 解释了大足石刻冬季盐害的形成机理, 对大足石刻毛细水治理提供了理论依据。

     

  • 图 1  卧佛主要病害图

    Figure 1.  Main damages of the sleeping Buddha

    图 2  重庆市大足区宝顶山区位图

    Figure 2.  Location map of the Dazu district, Baoding Mountain area in Chongqing

    图 3  宝顶山地质图

    Figure 3.  Geological map of the Baoding Mountain area

    图 4  宝顶山砂岩地层典型剖面

    Figure 4.  Typical strata profile of the Baoding Mountain area

    图 5  3套砂岩薄片鉴定照片

    a.卧佛上砂岩正交偏光; b.卧佛上砂岩单偏光; c.卧佛砂岩正交偏光; d.卧佛砂岩单偏光; e.卧佛下砂岩正交偏光; f.卧佛下砂岩单偏光

    Figure 5.  Sandstone slice images of the three sets of layers

    图 6  宝顶山砂岩XRD曲线图

    Figure 6.  X-ray diffraction curves of the sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area

    图 7  宝顶山砂岩电镜扫描成果

    a.卧佛上砂岩; b.卧佛砂岩; c.卧佛下砂岩; d.砂岩颗粒间绿脱石、伊利石混层

    Figure 7.  Scanning electron microscopy images of the sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area

    图 8  宝顶山砂岩孔隙分布累积曲线

    Figure 8.  Accumulation curves of the pore distribution of the sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area

    图 9  卡斯特瓶测试岩石表面毛细吸水性

    Figure 9.  Surface capillary absorption tested by the Karsten tube

    图 10  宝顶山砂岩表面毛细吸水曲线

    Figure 10.  Absorption curves of capillary water on the surfaces of sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area

    图 11  宝顶山砂岩表面吸水系数结果柱状图

    Figure 11.  Histogram of the surface capillary absorption coefficients for sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area

    图 12  毛细水上升高度与浸水时间关系曲线

    Figure 12.  Relationship curves between the capillary water rising height and the time

    图 13  毛细水上升高度与自然吸水得到孔隙率关系

    Figure 13.  Relationship between the capillary water rising height and porosity calculated by the natural absorption water amount

    图 14  毛细水上升高度与环境温度关系

    Figure 14.  Relationship between capillary water rising height and environmental temperature

    图 15  毛细水上升高度与环境湿度关系

    Figure 15.  Relationship between capillary water rise height and environmental relative humidity

    图 16  封闭与开放环境下毛细水上升高度测试

    Figure 16.  Test of the capillary water rising height in sealed and ventilated environments

    图 17  宝顶山砂岩压汞孔隙率分布柱状图

    Figure 17.  Porosity histogram of the sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area tested by the mercury intrusion method

    表  1  薄片鉴定结果表

    Table  1.   Results of thin section identification

    地层 石英 长石 硅质碎屑 钙镁质 黏土矿物与其他 砾状砂粒径范围/mm
    φB/%
    卧佛上砂岩 42 23 10 16 9 0.05~0.15
    卧佛砂岩 47 22 15 5 11 0.05~0.15
    卧佛下砂岩 55 20 5 8 12 0.05~0.10
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  砂岩矿物组成表

    Table  2.   Mineral component table of the sandstones

    地层 矿物
    卧佛上砂岩 石英、斜长石、方解石、绿脱石、伊利石、铝绿泥石、正长石、钠云母
    卧佛砂岩 石英、斜长石、方解石、绿脱石、绿泥石、石膏、微斜长石、云母
    卧佛下砂岩 石英、斜长石、方解石、绿脱石、伊利石、斜绿泥石、绿泥石、榍石
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  宝顶山砂岩化学成分测试结果

    Table  3.   Results of the chemical composition test of sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area

    成分 卧佛上层 卧佛层 卧佛下层
    SiO2 52.13 56.22 59.91
    Al2O3 11.97 13.16 10.57
    TFe2O3 3.11 3.01 2.95
    MgO 2.65 2.50 1.96
    CaO 11.67 8.05 9.44
    Na2O 2.64 2.95 2.21
    K2O wB/% 1.68 2.06 2.01
    TiO2 0.74 0.66 0.54
    P2O5 0.19 0.17 0.14
    MnO 0.15 0.096 0.11
    H2O- 0.80 1.00 0.66
    烧失量 12.18 9.40 9.72
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  宝顶山砂岩理论计算孔隙率与不同测试方法得到孔隙率比较表

    Table  4.   Comparison of the calculated porosity and different test method results of the sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area

    地层 编号 干密度/(kg·m-3) 颗粒相对密度 理论孔隙率/% 压汞试验孔隙率/% 开孔率/% 天然饱和孔隙率/% 真空饱和孔隙率/%
    孔隙率 平均
    卧佛上砂岩 1-A 2 318.2 2.643 12.29 13.98 13.29 95.06 6.14 9.97
    1-B 2 273.4 2.655 14.37
    1-C 2 242.0 2.646 15.27
    卧佛砂岩 2-A 2 215.4 2.661 16.74 17.41 17.39 99.90 10.95 11.87
    2-B 2 179.6 2.658 18.00
    2-C 2 192.5 2.657 17.48
    卧佛下砂岩 3-A 2 473.3 2.701 8.43 7.98 7.95 99.55 3.60 4.77
    3-B 2 466.7 2.681 7.99
    3-C 2 470.9 2.672 7.53
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  空气流通条件对毛细水上升高度的影响结果

    Table  5.   Results of the capillary water rising height influenced by the air circulation condition  h/cm

    环境条件 卧佛上砂岩 卧佛砂岩 卧佛下砂岩
    封闭环境 4.5 10 3.5
    气流循环 2.4 5 2.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  极端温湿度环境条件下宝顶山砂岩毛细水上升高度

    Table  6.   Capillary water rising heights of the sandstones in the Baoding Mountain area under extreme temperature and relative humidity conditions  h/cm

    环境条件 温度影响/℃ 湿度影响/%
    5 40 40 >95
    卧佛上砂岩 3.72 2.33 2.57 3.77
    卧佛砂岩 7.40 3.73 4.43 5.93
    卧佛下砂岩 2.85 2.32 2.15 2.98
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-09-07

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