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塔西北地区下寒武统碳酸盐岩地球化学特征及其古环境意义: 以舒探1井为例

张春宇 管树巍 吴林 任荣 熊连桥

张春宇, 管树巍, 吴林, 任荣, 熊连桥. 塔西北地区下寒武统碳酸盐岩地球化学特征及其古环境意义: 以舒探1井为例[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 99-111. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0508
引用本文: 张春宇, 管树巍, 吴林, 任荣, 熊连桥. 塔西北地区下寒武统碳酸盐岩地球化学特征及其古环境意义: 以舒探1井为例[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 99-111. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0508
Zhang Chunyu, Guan Shuwei, Wu Lin, Ren Rong, Xiong Lianqiao. Geochemical characteristics and its paleo-environmental significance of the Lower Cambrian carbonate in the northwestern Tarim Basin: A case study of Well Shutan-1[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 99-111. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0508
Citation: Zhang Chunyu, Guan Shuwei, Wu Lin, Ren Rong, Xiong Lianqiao. Geochemical characteristics and its paleo-environmental significance of the Lower Cambrian carbonate in the northwestern Tarim Basin: A case study of Well Shutan-1[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 99-111. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0508

塔西北地区下寒武统碳酸盐岩地球化学特征及其古环境意义: 以舒探1井为例

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0508
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41902158

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张春宇(1990-), 男, 工程师, 主要从事沉积储层方面的研究工作。E-mail: zcy21_jobs@outlook.com

  • 中图分类号: P59

Geochemical characteristics and its paleo-environmental significance of the Lower Cambrian carbonate in the northwestern Tarim Basin: A case study of Well Shutan-1

  • 摘要: 近年来,塔里木盆地盐下已成为深层油气勘探最重要的领域之一。下寒武统肖尔布拉克组是最主要的勘探层位,目前该层段地球化学特征和古环境的分析主要集中在柯坪露头区,而盆内缺乏相关研究。以盆内巴楚隆起舒探1井为例,对下寒武统肖尔布拉克组岩石学和地球化学特征(主、微量元素,稀土元素及碳氧同位素)进行了高精度分析,重建了其沉积时期的古环境及其变化特征。研究表明:舒探1井肖尔布拉克组发育多种类型的白云岩。下部以厚层藻云岩为主,中部为薄层泥岩夹白云质灰岩,上部以细-粉晶白云岩为主。样品Lan/Ybn均值为1.09,下部和上部呈现出Eu的正异常,薄片中可见硅质胶结、硅质碎屑和溶蚀现象,表明研究区可能受到了热液作用的影响。该组中部沉积物粒度较细并富集氧化还原敏感元素,V/Cr和Ni/Co分别介于2~4.25和5~7之间,表明沉积水体为次氧化环境,而上部和下部沉积物粒度较粗,氧化-还原敏感元素含量及其比值均较低,表明沉积水体为氧化环境。肖尔布拉克组δ13C值在-1.3‰~2.7‰之间,由下自上先降低后升高,下部和中部存在2个显著的正异常及1个负异常。古环境恢复表明肖尔布拉克期古盐度先降低后升高,古温度显示出逐渐上升的特点;肖尔布拉克组顶部古盐度较高,藻云岩发育,伴随着后期的淋滤和改造作用,是优质白云岩储层发育的有利部位。研究成果可以为该区的油气勘探提供依据。

     

  • 图 1  塔里木盆地构造单元图(a)及舒探1井剖面图(b)

    Figure 1.  Tectonic framework (a) of the Tarim Basin and the profile (b) of Well Shutan-1

    图 2  舒探1井肖尔布拉克组取心段镜下岩石学特征

    a.玄武岩,埋深2 064 m,正交偏光;b.含陆源碎屑泥岩,埋深2 062.6 m,正交偏光;c.中晶白云岩,埋深1 995.5 m,单偏光;d.砂屑纹层状白云岩,埋深1 994.3 m,正交偏光;e.硅质细晶白云岩,埋深1 917.8 m,正交偏光;f.硅质白云岩,埋深1 918.2 m,正交偏光;g.叠层石白云岩,埋深1 889.1 m,正交偏光;h.砂屑粉晶白云岩,埋深1 887 m,单偏光;i.含硅质砂屑泥-粉晶白云岩,埋深1 883.2 m,正交偏光

    Figure 2.  Microscopic characteristics of the Xiaoerbulake Formation from Well Shutan-1

    图 3  舒探1井肖尔布拉克组地球化学柱状图

    Figure 3.  Geochemical column of the Xiaoerbulake Formation from Well Shutan-1

    图 4  舒探1井肖尔布拉克组PAAS标准化后稀土元素配分模式图(岩性图例同图 1)

    Figure 4.  PAAS-normalized REE patterns of the Xiaoerbulake Formation from Well Shutan-1

    图 5  舒探1井肖尔布拉克组碳氧同位素交汇图

    Figure 5.  Crossplot of carbon and oxygen isotope signature of the Xiaoerbulake Formation from Well Shutan-1

    图 6  Eu/Eu*w(Ba)和w(Al2O3)交汇图

    Figure 6.  Crossplots of Eu/Eu* and Ba, Eu/Eu* and Al2O3

    图 7  过舒探1井的地震剖面(剖面位置见图 1)

    Figure 7.  Seismic profile across Well Shutan-1

    图 8  早寒武世肖尔布拉克组沉积演化图

    Figure 8.  Depositional evolution of the Xiaoerbulake Formation in the Early Cambrian

    表  1  舒探1井肖尔布拉克组样品主、微量和稀土元素测试结果

    Table  1.   Analytical results of major, trace and rare earth elements of samples in the Xiaoerbulake Formation from Well Shutan-1

    样品深度/m 主量元素wB/% 微量元素wB/10-6 V/Cr Ni/Co
    SiO2 Al2O3 CaO K2O Na2O TFe2O3 MgO MnO P2O5 TiO2 烧失量 U V Mo Ni Cr Co Mn Sr Ba Th
    1 883.2 1.69 0.27 29.8 0.09 0.04 0.42 21.10 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 45.82 0.45 3 0.22 1.1 5 0.8 106 48.1 29.7 0.50 0.6 1.4
    1 883.7 1.01 0.19 30.4 0.06 0.05 0.10 21.50 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 45.67 0.33 2 0.11 0.5 2 0.6 85 39.0 22.6 0.35 1.0 0.8
    1 884.0 1.22 0.16 29.8 0.06 0.03 0.07 21.10 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 45.72 0.35 2 0.09 0.6 3 0.7 101 36.2 11.5 0.27 0.7 0.9
    1 884.3 1.63 0.14 29.0 0.05 0.05 0.08 20.50 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 46.09 0.31 1 0.15 0.3 13 0.6 100 453.0 147.0 0.20 0.1 0.5
    1 884.8 1.22 0.17 30.1 0.05 0.03 0.27 21.00 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 45.53 0.34 2 0.11 0.4 4 0.7 130 78.9 33.6 0.31 0.5 0.6
    1 885.1 1.35 0.20 30.1 0.07 0.03 0.08 20.80 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 45.62 0.30 3 0.06 0.4 5 0.7 100 89.9 15.7 0.30 0.6 0.6
    1 886.5 2.43 0.39 29.4 0.12 0.03 0.57 20.60 0.02 < 0.01 < 0.01 45.05 0.55 3 0.25 1.2 6 1.0 133 46.9 44.5 0.62 0.5 1.2
    1 887.0 2.87 0.45 29.6 0.13 0.03 0.94 20.30 0.02 < 0.01 0.01 45.43 0.55 5 0.19 1.1 7 1.0 159 48.7 41.2 0.68 0.7 1.1
    1 888.8 3.22 0.36 29.4 0.09 0.04 0.83 20.80 0.02 < 0.01 0.01 45.29 0.60 3 0.36 1.6 7 0.8 157 45.5 9.2 0.54 0.4 2.0
    1 894.0 12.67 0.20 26.2 0.06 0.46 0.06 18.55 0.02 < 0.01 0.01 41.00 0.23 3 0.24 0.9 3 0.9 135 244.0 1 500.0 0.20 1.0 1.0
    1 904.0 4.39 0.10 28.9 0.04 0.29 0.04 20.50 0.02 < 0.01 0.01 44.90 0.28 3 0.22 0.9 2 0.9 132 95.0 1 470.0 0.13 1.5 1.0
    1 909.0 1.30 0.11 29.6 0.03 0.20 0.21 21.10 0.01 < 0.01 0.02 46.38 0.23 2 0.26 0.8 11 0.9 124 89.4 970.0 0.25 0.2 0.9
    1 914.0 2.46 0.14 29.4 0.05 0.21 0.25 20.80 0.01 < 0.01 0.02 45.81 0.28 3 0.33 0.8 2 0.9 117 128.0 850.0 0.19 1.5 0.9
    1 915.3 1.40 0.02 30.4 0.01 < 0.01 0.03 21.90 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 46.06 0.22 1 0.50 0.2 1 0.4 109 30.7 248.0 0.11 1.0 0.5
    1 915.9 19.34 0.06 24.5 0.01 0.05 0.02 17.55 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 37.76 0.17 1 0.50 0.2 2 0.3 83 23.6 21.9 0.14 0.5 0.7
    1 916.4 39.30 0.10 18.45 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.03 13.25 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 30.27 0.12 1 0.50 0.2 1 0.3 64 20.5 4.7 0.08 1.0 0.7
    1 917.8 20.49 0.09 23.8 0.01 < 0.01 1.39 17.00 0.02 < 0.01 < 0.01 35.12 0.28 1 0.52 1.5 10 0.5 173 25.1 43.9 0.20 0.1 3.0
    1 918.3 4.68 0.18 28.7 0.02 < 0.01 0.63 20.70 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 42.79 0.27 1 0.12 0.2 4 0.6 125 29.1 45.1 0.18 0.3 0.3
    1 919.5 16.84 0.04 25.3 0.01 < 0.01 1.00 18.00 0.02 < 0.01 < 0.01 39.33 0.24 1 0.42 1.3 11 0.5 145 25.8 26.0 0.16 0.1 2.6
    1 920.0 10.59 0.38 26.8 0.12 0.28 0.12 18.55 0.02 0.01 0.04 40.65 0.38 6 2.30 3.1 13 1.6 162 234.0 1 290.0 0.36 0.5 1.9
    1 926.0 3.69 0.14 28.9 0.05 0.24 0.24 20.40 0.01 < 0.01 0.02 44.96 0.29 3 0.23 1.3 3 1.0 114 108.5 1 270.0 0.12 1.0 1.3
    1 932.0 0.90 0.13 30.0 0.06 0.34 0.18 21.30 0.01 < 0.01 0.02 46.77 0.48 2 0.24 0.7 2 0.8 114 191.5 980.0 0.17 1.0 0.9
    1 939.0 3.53 0.74 29.8 0.24 0.12 0.68 19.20 0.02 0.03 0.08 42.58 1.85 9 0.30 4.4 5 2.1 160 346.0 640.0 0.71 1.8 2.1
    1 944.0 2.06 0.34 30.4 0.10 0.14 0.44 20.30 0.02 0.02 0.04 43.62 0.59 4 1.38 1.8 4 1.2 121 236.0 670.0 0.33 1.0 1.5
    1 949.0 3.27 0.72 30.4 0.22 0.25 0.52 17.90 0.02 0.08 0.07 39.98 4.41 13 0.86 4.9 7 2.4 132 395.0 130.0 1.05 1.9 2.0
    1 954.0 1.36 0.25 32.4 0.08 0.25 0.08 17.12 0.02 0.01 0.04 37.09 0.78 5 0.40 4.1 6 1.3 136 561.0 50.0 0.23 0.8 3.2
    1 961.0 5.47 1.43 27.6 0.29 0.31 1.75 20.00 0.03 0.05 0.27 41.43 1.47 22 0.51 24.0 10 7.4 251 191.0 510.0 0.48 2.2 3.2
    1 967.0 9.63 2.38 25.7 0.52 0.64 3.29 17.90 0.05 0.11 0.51 37.14 2.04 35 0.61 31.4 17 10.1 364 321.0 630.0 0.81 2.1 3.1
    1 988.0 7.34 0.64 27.9 0.30 0.05 1.34 19.45 0.03 0.09 0.03 43.70 0.79 11 0.17 2.9 5 1.6 200 49.9 9.8 0.72 2.2 1.8
    1 988.3 2.11 0.51 29.4 0.24 0.14 0.30 20.70 0.02 0.11 0.02 43.37 0.70 5 0.07 1.2 3 1.2 187 57.8 9.4 0.61 1.7 1.0
    1 990.5 2.91 0.57 29.8 0.3 0.07 0.49 20.40 0.05 0.28 0.04 43.79 2.15 23 0.18 1.0 6 0.8 362 77.3 16.8 0.67 3.8 1.3
    1 992.0 6.45 2.08 27.2 1.37 0.08 1.39 18.85 0.03 0.05 0.12 41.45 0.94 29 0.34 4.2 17 0.9 212 106.5 78.1 2.28 1.7 4.7
    1 995.5 51.91 18.37 3.23 11.85 0.10 1.42 3.08 < 0.01 0.25 0.01 45.65 0.91 92 0.09 15.7 59 2.6 25 186.5 224.0 19.60 1.6 6.0
    1 998.0 8.64 3.39 25.6 1.33 0.19 1.33 16.35 0.04 0.11 0.88 6.72 1.55 42 2.91 15.5 47 5.0 252 406.0 60.0 5.02 0.9 3.1
    2 004.0 3.49 1.00 31.8 0.54 0.30 0.61 14.70 0.02 0.11 0.05 34.01 0.29 9 0.35 2.5 9 1.1 139 729.0 10.0 1.25 1.0 2.3
    2 013.0 0.86 0.16 30.3 0.09 0.30 0.24 20.70 0.01 0.01 0.01 45.97 0.20 2 0.28 1.1 16 0.7 125 136.0 1 210.0 0.29 0.1 1.6
    2 019.0 0.49 0.10 30.1 0.08 0.42 0.17 21.10 0.01 0.01 0.01 46.98 0.39 2 0.17 1.0 4 0.7 128 124.5 4 250.0 0.13 0.5 1.4
    2 025.0 0.60 0.10 30.5 0.05 0.21 0.19 20.70 0.02 0.01 0.01 46.43 0.48 3 0.26 0.8 3 0.9 161 148.0 2 050.0 0.14 1.0 0.9
    2 035.0 0.92 0.16 31.1 0.08 0.24 0.39 21.40 0.02 0.01 0.01 45.71 0.40 3 0.92 1.4 5 0.9 127 210.0 860.0 0.17 0.6 1.6
    2 041.0 0.84 0.26 30.3 0.09 0.24 0.35 20.30 0.02 0.02 0.02 44.92 1.18 7 0.33 1.9 4 1.1 168 197.5 750.0 0.30 1.8 1.7
    2 047.0 0.42 0.09 30.1 0.05 0.28 0.24 21.30 0.03 0.01 0.01 46.90 0.80 3 0.43 1.5 4 0.8 226 2 410.0 1 390.0 0.14 0.8 1.9
    2 049.0 0.58 0.20 30.1 0.09 0.30 0.26 20.90 0.02 0.02 0.01 46.53 1.17 5 0.17 1.6 4 0.9 194 431.0 1 220.0 0.29 1.3 1.8
    2 052.0 0.90 0.34 30.0 0.13 0.27 0.36 20.60 0.02 0.03 0.02 45.98 0.80 6 0.14 2.0 5 1.0 156 149.0 1 150.0 0.49 1.2 2.0
    2 054.0 0.74 0.23 30.3 0.11 0.29 0.32 20.70 0.02 0.02 0.01 46.18 0.58 5 0.13 1.9 5 0.9 193 123.5 1 370.0 0.35 1.0 2.1
    2 057.0 1.96 0.60 30.1 0.22 0.29 0.61 19.65 0.04 0.13 0.01 44.20 1.17 8 0.35 2.4 9 1.4 308 194.5 760.0 0.77 0.9 1.7
    2 057.9 14.88 5.41 22.4 2.76 0.06 1.48 16.10 0.06 0.07 0.23 36.48 1.99 10 0.08 3.2 31 2.6 490 63.3 129.5 6.64 0.3 1.2
    2 059.1 50.07 17.52 2.03 8.44 0.15 7.94 3.53 < 0.01 0.15 1.11 6.58 1.76 9 0.28 1.9 170 6.2 95 87.9 778.0 22.70 0.1 0.3
    2 060.0 22.47 8.02 17.95 3.89 0.21 3.68 13.35 0.05 0.11 0.43 28.86 1.17 11 0.47 2.8 48 4.1 345 135.0 650.0 10.20 0.2 0.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  舒探1井肖尔布拉克组样品碳、氧同位素测试结果

    Table  2.   Analyical results of carbon and oxygen of the Xiaoerbulake Formation in Well Shutan-1

    编号 样品深度/m δ13C/‰ δ18O/‰ Mn/Sr Z 温度/℃
    1 1 883.2 0.8 -6.1 2.2 125.9 26.3
    2 1 883.7 0.8 -6.1 2.2 125.9 26.3
    3 1 884.0 0.7 -6.6 2.8 125.4 28.7
    4 1 884.3 0.8 -6.5 0.2 125.7 28.2
    5 1 884.8 0.6 -6.7 1.6 125.2 29.1
    6 1 885.1 0.6 -7.0 1.1 125.0 30.6
    7 1 886.5 0.9 -6.0 2.8 126.1 25.9
    8 1 887.0 0.8 -6.4 3.3 125.7 27.7
    9 1 888.8 0.8 -7.6 3.5 125.2 33.5
    10 1 891.0 0.9 -6.1 126.1 26.3
    11 1 894.0 0.9 -6.0 0.6 126.1 25.9
    12 1 901.0 0.9 -5.9 126.2 25.4
    13 1 904.0 0.9 -5.9 1.4 126.2 25.4
    14 1 907.0 0.8 -6.1 125.9 26.3
    15 1 909.0 0.8 -6.0 1.4 125.9 25.9
    16 1 911.0 0.9 -5.9 126.2 25.4
    17 1 914.0 0.8 -6.0 0.9 125.9 25.9
    18 1 915.3 0.5 -6.8 3.6 124.9 29.6
    19 1 915.9 0.5 -6.9 3.5 124.9 30.1
    20 1 916.4 0.3 -7.3 3.1 124.3 32.0
    21 1 917.0 0.7 -6.1 125.7 26.3
    22 1 917.8 0.6 -6.6 6.9 125.2 28.7
    23 1 918.3 0.5 -6.7 4.3 125.0 29.1
    24 1 919.5 0.5 -6.7 5.6 125.0 29.1
    25 1 920.0 0.6 -6.1 0.7 125.5 26.3
    26 1 923.0 0.5 -6.3 125.2 27.3
    27 1 926.0 0.5 -6.1 1.1 125.3 26.3
    28 1 928.0 0.5 -6.3 125.2 27.3
    29 1 932.0 0.3 -6.4 0.6 124.7 27.7
    30 1 936.0 -0.2 -5.1 124.3 21.6
    31 1 939.0 -0.2 -3.6 0.5 125.1 15.0
    32 1 941.0 -0.3 -3.2 125.1 13.7
    33 1 944.0 -0.4 -3.7 0.5 124.7 15.5
    34 1 947.0 -0.6 -3.7 124.2 15.6
    35 1 949.0 -1.1 -3.6 0.3 123.2 15.3
    36 1 951.0 -1.0 -3.5 123.5 14.9
    37 1 954.0 -0.7 -5.0 0.2 123.4 21.1
    38 1 957.0 -1.2 -4.0 122.9 16.7
    39 1 961.0 -1.0 -5.2 1.3 122.7 22.1
    40 1 964.0 -1.3 -5.0 122.2 21.1
    41 1 967.0 -1.1 -4.8 1.1 122.7 20.3
    42 1 988.0 2.0 -6.6 4.0 128.1 28.7
    43 1 988.3 2.2 -6.0 3.2 128.8 25.9
    44 1 990.5 1.3 -6.1 4.7 126.9 26.3
    45 1 992.0 1.6 -5.9 2.0 127.6 25.4
    46 1 995.5 1.9 -6.0 0.1 128.2 25.9
    47 1 996.0 1.1 -3.6 127.8 15.2
    48 1 998.0 0.7 -4.4 0.6 126.6 18.4
    49 2 001.0 2.1 -5.7 128.7 24.5
    50 2 004.0 2.1 -6.0 0.2 128.6 25.9
    51 2 010.0 2.3 -5.4 129.3 23.2
    52 2 013.0 2.3 -4.3 0.9 129.9 18.0
    53 2 016.0 2.2 -5.1 129.3 21.4
    54 2 019.0 2.5 -2.9 1.0 131.0 12.5
    55 2 022.0 2.7 -3.0 131.3 12.8
    56 2 025.0 2.1 -1.9 1.1 130.7 8.4
    57 2 032.0 2.3 -1.4 131.3 6.7
    58 2 035.0 1.9 -2.6 0.6 129.9 11.3
    59 2 038.0 1.1 -2.6 128.2 11.3
    60 2 041.0 0.7 -2.1 0.9 127.7 9.1
    61 2 044.0 1.1 -2.3 128.4 10.2
    62 2 047.0 1.5 -2.2 0.1 129.3 9.9
    63 2 049.0 1.4 -1.8 0.5 129.3 8.1
    64 2 052.0 1.7 -1.3 1.0 130.1 6.4
    65 2 054.0 2.0 -2.1 1.6 130.4 9.1
    66 2 057.0 2.2 -2.7 1.6 130.4 11.7
    67 2 057.9 2.0 -3.0 7.7 129.9 12.8
    68 2 059.1 1.6 -6.3 1.1 127.4 27.3
    69 2 060.0 2.4 -2.7 2.6 130.9 11.7
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