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GF-2遥感数据在盖孜河流域典型第四纪地层调查中的应用

张志军 徐马强 王明 李显巨 董玉森 陈伟涛 吴春明 王力哲

张志军, 徐马强, 王明, 李显巨, 董玉森, 陈伟涛, 吴春明, 王力哲. GF-2遥感数据在盖孜河流域典型第四纪地层调查中的应用[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(6): 302-312. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0630
引用本文: 张志军, 徐马强, 王明, 李显巨, 董玉森, 陈伟涛, 吴春明, 王力哲. GF-2遥感数据在盖孜河流域典型第四纪地层调查中的应用[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(6): 302-312. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0630
Zhang Zhijun, Xu Maqiang, Wang Ming, Li Xianju, Dong Yusen, Chen Weitao, Wu Chunming, Wang Lizhe. Application of GF-2 remote sensing data for typical Quaternary stratigraphic survey in Gaizi River Basin[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(6): 302-312. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0630
Citation: Zhang Zhijun, Xu Maqiang, Wang Ming, Li Xianju, Dong Yusen, Chen Weitao, Wu Chunming, Wang Lizhe. Application of GF-2 remote sensing data for typical Quaternary stratigraphic survey in Gaizi River Basin[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(6): 302-312. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0630

GF-2遥感数据在盖孜河流域典型第四纪地层调查中的应用

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0630
基金项目: 

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20191016

高分辨率对地观测系统重大专项 GFZX0404130302

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张志军(1986-), 男, 现正攻读军事地质学专业博士学位, 主要从事遥感技术在地质调查中的应用研究。E-mail: zhangzhijun-0001@163.com

    通讯作者:

    王力哲(1974-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事空间信息处理与服务方面的教学与研究工作。E-mail: lizhe.wang@foxmail.com

  • 中图分类号: P53

Application of GF-2 remote sensing data for typical Quaternary stratigraphic survey in Gaizi River Basin

  • 摘要: 国产高分辨率卫星遥感技术的发展为第四系宏观、局部及细部特征调查提供了新的手段。中巴经济走廊东段地区分布较多的冲洪积扇、河谷阶地、冰川堆积等地貌类型,为了研究国产高分数据在该地区第四纪地质调查中的适用性,以高分二号(GF-2)影像为主要数据源,借助数字高程模型构建三维场景,选取中巴公路沿线盖孜河流域乌鲁阿特山前冲洪积扇、盖孜河河谷阶地与克拉牙依拉克冰川堆积物3处典型第四纪地层为研究对象,建立了遥感解译标志,并进行了精细尺度遥感解译;经过野外实地验证,查明了其物质组成与变化规律,修正了前人关于克拉牙依拉克冰川不同期次冰碛物的划分范围;通过对盖孜河河谷阶地分析,盖孜河流域晚更新世以来经历了至少5次阶段性构造抬升,阶地基座冰碛物至少由两期冰川作用形成。研究表明,GF-2影像能快速从宏观尺度上识别地貌、松散堆积物变化特征,能够看到常规方法无法观察到的地质现象;满足大比例尺解译、制图要求,特别是在微地貌识别以及第四纪地层解译中,能够提升精细地质解译水平。研究成果能为盖孜河流域河流、冰川的发展演化过程研究提供基础地质资料,为中巴公路沿线第四纪土体遥感调查提供典型案例。

     

  • 图 1  研究区地貌图

    Figure 1.  Geomorphologic map of the study area

    图 2  乌鲁阿特山前倾斜平原遥感解译结果

    Q4col.全新世风积; Q4pal.全新世冲洪积; Q3-4al.晚更新世-全新世冲积; Q3pal.晚更新世冲洪积; Q3gl.晚更新世冰碛

    Figure 2.  Remote sensing interpretation of the sloping plain in front of the Uruat Mountains

    图 3  盖孜河谷阶地解译结果

    Figure 3.  Remote sensing interpretation of Gaizi River valley terrace

    图 4  克拉牙依拉克冰碛物解译结果(a)和立体影像(b, c)(图例同图 3)

    Figure 4.  Interpretation of Clathrate Irak glacial till (a) and three-dimensional images (b, c)

    图 5  克拉牙依拉克冰川遗迹分布图(据文献[19])

    Figure 5.  Remnants of Clathrate Irak glaciation

    图 6  晚更新世冲洪积扇扇中细砾夹中砾(a)和扇前缘风积沙丘(b)

    Figure 6.  Fine gravel clip pebblestone at the midddle alluvial and flood fan in the late Pleistocene sediment (a) and eolian dunes at front alluvial fan (b)

    图 7  乌鲁阿特山前倾斜平原A-A′剖面图

    Q3pal.晚更新世冲洪积;Q3-4al.晚更新世-全新世冲洪积;Q4pal.全新世冲洪积;Q4eol.全新世风积

    Figure 7.  A-A′ profile of sloping plain in front of Mount Uruat

    图 8  盖孜河谷北岸阶地照片(a)、T3阶地阶坎(b)及T5阶地边缘冰碛物(c)

    Figure 8.  Terraces of the north bank at Gaizi valley (a) and terrace and step of T3 (b), glacial till at the edge of terrace of T5 (c)

    图 9  盖孜河谷阶地B-B′实测横剖面

    Q3gl.晚更新世冰碛;Q3al.晚更新世冲积;Q4al.全新世冲积

    Figure 9.  B-B′ measured cross-section of terrace at Gaizi River valley

    图 10  Tc4冰碛台地及局部照片

    Figure 10.  Moraine platform and some photos of Tc4

    表  1  GF-2卫星主要技术指标(据文献[27])

    Table  1.   Technical index of the GF-2 satelite

    技术性能
    轨道 轨道类型及高度 太阳同步回归轨道,631 km
    重访、覆盖特性 无侧摆时,69天可完成全球无缝覆盖观测;侧摆23°时,全球任意地区重访周期不大于5天
    观测能力 谱段/μm 全色:0.45~0.90
    多光谱:0.45~0.52;0.52~0.59;0.63~0.69;0.77~0.89
    星下点地面分辨率/m 全色谱段0.81,多光谱谱段3.24
    地面幅宽, 定位精度/km >45, 平面无控制点50
    姿态控制 控制方式;姿态指向精度;稳定度 三轴稳定,对地定向;≤0.05°(三轴,3σ);≤5×10-4°/s(三轴,3σ)
    惯性空间测量精度 ≤0.003°(三轴,3σ)
    姿态机动能力 侧摆±35°,35°范围内侧摆及稳定时间小于180 s
    具有每轨侧摆2次的能力
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  山前冲洪积扇解译标志

    Table  2.   Interpretation marks of piedmont alluvial and diluvial fan

    标志 描述
    分布位置 位于山前河流出山口的广大倾斜平原上
    形状 呈扇状
    大小 大小不一,通常横向可达数十千米
    色调 色调呈现过渡形式,但扇前缘地下水泄出带常出现色调突变
    纹理 由扇顶至扇前缘,纹理由粗糙逐渐过渡为平滑
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  河流阶地解译标志

    Table  3.   Interpretation marlcs of river terrace

    标志 描述
    分布位置 位于河流两侧,高于河漫滩,越老的阶地离河床越远
    色调 阶面色调均匀、较浅,阶坎色调较深且有阴影存在
    形状 阶地表面较平坦,沿河床呈宽窄不等的条带状展布,组合为阶梯状(据文献[30])
    大小 阶地大小不一,高低不同
    阴影 阶坎有阴影存在,阴影深浅、长宽随阶坎高低、倾角变化而变化
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  冰川冰碛物解译标志

    Table  4.   Interpretation marks of glacial drifts

    标志 描述
    分布位置 位于冰川冰舌的前缘及两侧,古冰川的冰碛物通常在现代冰川前缘及周边,分布范围较广
    色调 现代冰川冰碛物多呈灰黑色,古冰川冰碛物由于有现代沉积物覆盖而呈黄色、浅黄色
    形状 较新的冰川冰碛物多被保留在冰槽谷的两侧,呈细条带状;古冰川的冰碛物多呈台地、垄岗状
    大小 因冰川规模大小及经后期改造的不同而不同
    纹理 不同期次的冰碛物纹理不同,较老的冰碛物由于后期风化剥蚀夷平及现代沉积物覆盖,纹理平坦光滑;较新的冰碛物通常表面呈鳞片状,坑坑洼洼,高低不平
    下载: 导出CSV
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