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基于无人机倾斜摄影技术的崩塌隐患早期识别及影响区划分方法

吕权儒 曾斌 孟小军 陈刚 闫家康

吕权儒, 曾斌, 孟小军, 陈刚, 闫家康. 基于无人机倾斜摄影技术的崩塌隐患早期识别及影响区划分方法[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(6): 313-325, 334. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0631
引用本文: 吕权儒, 曾斌, 孟小军, 陈刚, 闫家康. 基于无人机倾斜摄影技术的崩塌隐患早期识别及影响区划分方法[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(6): 313-325, 334. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0631
Lü Quanru, Zeng Bin, Meng Xiaojun, Chen Gang, Yan Jiakang. Early identification and influence range division method of collapse hazards based on UAV oblique photography technology[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(6): 313-325, 334. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0631
Citation: Lü Quanru, Zeng Bin, Meng Xiaojun, Chen Gang, Yan Jiakang. Early identification and influence range division method of collapse hazards based on UAV oblique photography technology[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(6): 313-325, 334. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0631

基于无人机倾斜摄影技术的崩塌隐患早期识别及影响区划分方法

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0631
基金项目: 

江苏省地质勘查专项基金项目 苏财建[2018]96号

江苏省地质勘查专项基金项目 苏财资环[2019]14号

详细信息
    作者简介:

    吕权儒(1997-), 男, 现正攻读地质工程专业硕士学位, 主要从事地质灾害隐患早期识别方面的研究工作。E-mail: 591682355@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    曾斌(1980-), 男, 副教授, 主要从事地质灾害(隐患)的调查(早期识别)、评价、监测、防控等方面的教学及研究工作。E-mail: zengbin@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: X43

Early identification and influence range division method of collapse hazards based on UAV oblique photography technology

  • 摘要: 高位危岩崩塌极具隐蔽性、突发性和灾难性,传统的接触式调查方法在安全性方面无法完全保障并且也难以彻底查清边坡上各危岩块体的空间分布及发育特征,因此如何安全快速准确地获取边坡面上关键地质信息,一直是崩塌地质灾害调查及评价研究中的难点之一,也是防灾减灾工作中极为重要的环节。以连云港市某矿区高陡岩质边坡为例,提出了一套基于无人机倾斜摄影技术的崩塌隐患早期识别及影响区划分方法体系,该方法体系通过倾斜摄影技术获取研究区高分辨率影像及构建三维高精度地质模型,在此基础上利用测线法提取并统计边坡优势结构面空间展布特征及相关参数,利用赤平投影法对矿区高边坡关键危岩块体失稳模式进行判别,在完成关键危岩块体稳定性评价并划分稳定等级的前提下使用Rocfall模拟最不利工况下崩落体失稳后的滚落运动特征,从而划分出不同级别的崩塌影响区,为最终的地质灾害防治提供依据。研究表明,无人机倾斜摄影技术在崩塌隐患早期识别、破坏模式分析、稳定性评价以及崩落体威胁范围划定等方面具有显著的可行性和优越性。所提出的基于无人机倾斜摄影技术的崩塌隐患早期识别及影响区划分方法体系具有重要的参考价值。

     

  • 图 1  研究区地理位置分布图(影像来源:Google Earth)

    Figure 1.  Geographical distribution map of the study area

    图 2  基于无人机倾斜摄影技术的崩塌隐患早期识别及影响区划分方法体系

    Figure 2.  Method of early identification and influence range division of collapse hazards based on UAV oblique photography technology

    图 3  产状空间关系图

    Figure 3.  Occurrence spatial relationship diagram

    图 4  结构面产状读取方法

    Figure 4.  Method for reading the orientation of structural plane

    图 5  危岩体失稳模式图

    Figure 5.  Instability model of dangerous rock block

    图 6  岩质边坡失稳模式判别赤平投影图

    Figure 6.  Stereographic projection for identification of rock slope instability mode

    图 7  航线规划示意图

    Figure 7.  Schematic diagram of route planning

    图 8  研究区三维实景模型

    a.全局视图; b.局部视图; c.细节描述(精度mm)

    Figure 8.  3D real scene model of the study area

    图 9  测线分布图

    Figure 9.  Distribution map of measurement lines

    图 10  结构面走向玫瑰花图

    Figure 10.  Rose diagram of structural plane

    图 11  结构面等密度图

    Figure 11.  Isodensity map of structure surface

    图 12  研究区结构面组合关系分区示意图

    Figure 12.  Schematic diagram of structural plane combination relations of the study area

    图 13  基于赤平投影法的S2区边坡失稳模式判别分析

    J1、J2、J3.S2区优势结构面;1-2.优势结构面1,2交线;1-3.优势结构面1,3交线;2-3.优势结构面2,3交线

    Figure 13.  Discriminant analysis of slope instability modes based on stereographic projection method in S2 area

    图 14  滑移式崩塌稳定性计算模型

    U为滑面水压力(kN·m-1);V为后缘裂隙水压力(kN·m-1);W为岩体自重(kN·m-1); α为倾角(°);l为滑面长度(m)

    Figure 14.  Computational model of sliding collapse stability

    图 15  危岩体空间分布位置图

    Figure 15.  Map of the spatial distribution of dangerous rock mass

    图 16  危岩体运动轨迹图

    Figure 16.  Rolling trajectory diagram of dangerous rock mass

    图 17  危岩体速度与能量变化图

    Figure 17.  Map of speed and energy change of dangerous rock block

    图 18  危岩体停积水平分布图

    Figure 18.  Distribution map of stagnant volume of dangerous rock mass

    图 19  危岩体崩落影响区划分示意图

    Figure 19.  Schematic diagram of the influence areas for caving of dangerous rock mass

    表  1  边坡区优势结构面产状信息汇总

    Table  1.   Summary of occurrence information of advantageous structural plane in slope area

    代表区域 结构面编号 产状 形态 填充特性 间距/cm 张开度/mm 结构面分级
    S1 Js1-1 24°∠85° 平直 断续填充 61 0.25 Ⅳ级
    S2 Js2-1 78°∠39° 平直 薄膜填充 87 0.20 Ⅳ级
    Js2-2 340°∠68° 平直 薄膜填充 116 0.25 Ⅳ级
    Js2-3 245°∠64° 平直 薄膜填充 65 0.15 Ⅳ级
    S3 Js3-1 285°∠67° 平直 薄膜填充 75 0.25 Ⅳ级
    Js3-2 204°∠81° 平直 薄膜填充 25 0.10 Ⅳ级
    Js3-3 85°∠35° 平直 薄膜填充 68 0.20 Ⅳ级
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  危岩体稳定性统计

    Table  2.   Dangerous rock mass stability statistics

    编号 工况 滑面长度/m 裂隙深度/m 滑面倾角/(°) 下滑力/kN 抗滑力/kN 稳定性系数 稳定性
    危岩体1 天然 2.6 1.3 55 137.6 148.5 1.07 欠稳定
    暴雨 2.6 1.3 55 141.8 137.4 0.97 不稳定
    危岩体2 天然 8.0 3.2 62 219.1 242.0 1.10 欠稳定
    暴雨 8.0 3.2 62 236.5 217.6 0.92 不稳定
    危岩体3 天然 5.7 2.8 51 172.7 207.3 1.20 基本稳定
    暴雨 5.7 2.8 51 198.4 194.4 0.98 不稳定
    危岩体4 天然 6.4 5.8 58 248.9 251.4 1.01 欠稳定
    暴雨 6.4 5.8 58 269.1 242.2 0.90 不稳定
    下载: 导出CSV
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