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泥质砂岩残积土边坡降雨冲刷特性

李继兴 严松 杨春健 方跃光

李继兴, 严松, 杨春健, 方跃光. 泥质砂岩残积土边坡降雨冲刷特性[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(2): 26-33. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0051
引用本文: 李继兴, 严松, 杨春健, 方跃光. 泥质砂岩残积土边坡降雨冲刷特性[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(2): 26-33. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0051
Li Jixing, Yan Song, Yang Chunjian, Fang Yueguang. Rainfall erosion characteristics of argillaceous sandstone residual soil slopes[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(2): 26-33. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0051
Citation: Li Jixing, Yan Song, Yang Chunjian, Fang Yueguang. Rainfall erosion characteristics of argillaceous sandstone residual soil slopes[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(2): 26-33. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0051

泥质砂岩残积土边坡降雨冲刷特性

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0051
基金项目: 

云南省交通厅科教项目"基于原位测试关键技术的山区高速公路高边坡风险评价体系与防治措施研究" [2020]74号

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李继兴(1966—), 男, 正高职高级工程师, 主要从事水利水电工程、公路工程方面的研究工作。E-mail: 598106123@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    严松(1994—), 男, 现正攻读建筑与土木工程专业硕士学位, 主要从事特殊土工程性质研究。E-mail: songyan.whrsm@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P642.1;P642.21

Rainfall erosion characteristics of argillaceous sandstone residual soil slopes

  • 摘要: 泥质砂岩残积土作为一种结构性很强的特殊土, 具有崩解性强、抗冲蚀性差以及扰动性极大的特点, 对工程建设有较大影响。为了探究泥质砂岩残积土边坡降雨冲刷机理, 设计了边坡降雨冲刷试验, 通过现场三维激光扫描技术测试分析了其表面冲刷效应; 利用高密度电法进一步明确了泥质砂岩残积土边坡的入渗特性、表面冲刷演化机制及冲刷破坏机理。结果表明: 冲刷试验的最初阶段, 降水入渗强且主要向坡脚处运移, 坡表未形成明显的细沟; 冲刷试验中期, 坡脚处土体最先达到饱和而形成坡面径流, 细沟贯通扩大形成小规模冲槽以及片蚀区; 冲刷试验后期, 坡面中部和坡脚处土体冲蚀严重, 坡脚处的冲槽向上部延伸, 片蚀区扩大, 导致表层土体结构发生变化, 渗透性差异明显; 泥质砂岩残积土坡体降雨冲刷主要划分为表层溅蚀、下层潜蚀和细沟贯通3个阶段, 坡面土体流失主要发生在最后一个阶段, 细沟率达到最高值16.9%, 细沟贯通率也高达0.74。研究结果可以为深入探讨泥质砂岩残积土边坡冲蚀防护和研究冲蚀防护机理提供基础资料。

     

  • 图 1  泥质砂岩残积土

    Figure 1.  Argillaceous sandstone residual soil

    图 2  泥质砂岩残积土边坡冲蚀状况

    Figure 2.  Erosion condition of argillaceous sandstone residual soil slope

    图 3  边坡现场(a)及示意图(b)

    Figure 3.  Site(a) and schematic diagram (b) of slope

    图 4  边坡冲刷测试系统

    Figure 4.  Slope erosion test system

    图 5  高密度电阻率法测点和深度记录点

    Figure 5.  Measuring points and depth recording points of the high density resistivity method

    图 6  WBD网络并行电法仪

    C1、C2为供电电极,P1、P2为测量电极,a为电极间距,本试验中a=0.5 m,n为隔离系数(n=1, 2, 3, …)

    Figure 6.  WBD network parallel electrical instrument

    图 7  三维激光扫描仪

    Figure 7.  3D laser scanner

    图 8  高密度电法测试结果(各状态同表 2)

    a.状态一(测线1);b.状态一(测线2);c.状态二(测线1);d.状态二(测线2);e.状态三(测线1);f.状态三(测线2); g.状态四(测线1);h.状态四(测线2);i.状态五(测线1);j.状态五(测线2);k.状态六(测线1);l.状态六(测线2); m.状态七(测线1);n.状态七(测线2);o.状态八(测线1);p.状态八(测线2);q.状态九(测线1);r.状态九(测线2); s.状态十(测线1);t.状态十(测线2);u.状态十一(测线1);v.状态十一(测线2)

    Figure 8.  Test results of the high density electrical method

    图 9  降雨过程中细沟变化

    Figure 9.  Variation in rill during rainfall

    图 10  细沟深度及细沟宽度变化

    Figure 10.  Variation in depth and width of rill

    图 11  细沟率与连通率变化

    Figure 11.  Variation in rill rate and connectivity

    表  1  泥质砂岩残积土物理性质

    Table  1.   Physical properties of argillaceous sandstone residual soil

    物理性质 参数
        相对密度 2.72
        天然密度/(g·cm-3) 1.89
        天然含水率/% 17.5
    标准击实试验:
        最大干密度/(g·cm-3) 1.86
        最优含水率/% 12
    颗分试验:wB/%
        粗砂 18.4
        中沙 23.5
        细砂 8.5
        粉砂 20.7
        黏土 28.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  模拟降雨及试验测试设计

    Table  2.   Simulated rainfall and experimental test design

    测试状态 降雨累计时长/h 测试内容
    状态一(初始) 0 电法、三维激光扫描
    状态二(降雨) 2 电法
    状态三(入渗) 2 电法、三维激光扫描
    状态四(降雨) 4 电法
    状态五(降雨) 6 电法
    状态六(入渗) 6 电法、三维激光扫描
    状态七(降雨) 8 电法
    状态八(降雨) 10 电法、三维激光扫描
    状态九(降雨) 11 电法
    状态十(降雨) 12.5 电法、三维激光扫描
    状态十一(入渗) 12.5 电法、三维激光扫描
    下载: 导出CSV
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