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老挝稀土资源特征及勘查开发前景

吕亮 王思德 俎波 刘江涛 张广强

吕亮, 王思德, 俎波, 刘江涛, 张广强. 老挝稀土资源特征及勘查开发前景[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(3): 20-31. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0087
引用本文: 吕亮, 王思德, 俎波, 刘江涛, 张广强. 老挝稀土资源特征及勘查开发前景[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(3): 20-31. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0087
Lü Liang, Wang Side, Zu Bo, Liu Jiangtao, Zhang Guangqiang. Rare earth resources in Laos: Characteristics and the prospects for exploration and development[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(3): 20-31. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0087
Citation: Lü Liang, Wang Side, Zu Bo, Liu Jiangtao, Zhang Guangqiang. Rare earth resources in Laos: Characteristics and the prospects for exploration and development[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(3): 20-31. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0087

老挝稀土资源特征及勘查开发前景

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0087
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吕亮(1987—), 男, 工程师,主要从事境外矿产资源勘查与开发工作。E-mail: lvlianghappy@126.com

    通讯作者:

    俎波(1989—), 男, 副研究员, 主要从事矿床学、资源普查与勘探工作。E-mail: zubo@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P577

Rare earth resources in Laos: Characteristics and the prospects for exploration and development

  • 摘要:

    稀土是世界各国的战略性关键金属矿产资源,而中重稀土尤为重要。老挝境内分布着大量不同时代花岗岩类,且气候湿热多雨,风化作用强烈,为离子吸附型稀土矿的形成创造了有利条件。为查明老挝稀土资源成矿地质特征和资源分布特征,分析其投资开发前景,对整个老挝境内开展了大量系统的野外调研及相关分析测试工作,并且汇总了老挝稀土资源勘查工作进展。研究结果表明,老挝稀土资源成矿特征可类比中国南方地区,属于典型的风化壳淋积型矿床,矿体主要富集于花岗岩类风化壳全风化层,盖层厚度相对中国较大。矿体呈层状、似层状和透镜体状,厚度数米到二十多米。离子相稀土平均品位为0.4‰~0.7‰,大部分稀土配分模式同江西赣州信丰稀土矿相似,属富集中重稀土元素的中钇富铕型。老挝稀土资源主要分布于北部的川圹省和华潘省,预计两省稀土资源总量可达到60万t。随着老挝稀土政策的开放和中国稀土战略的逐步完善,投资开发老挝稀土资源,建立稀土资源的海外战略基地,可以长期稳定地支撑中国对离子吸附型稀土资源的需求,同时也可以为加强两国合作、共建中老命运共同体做出突出贡献。

     

  • 图 1  老挝不同期次花岗岩类侵入岩分布图

    w(REE): ①164.0×10-6~245.3×10-6,据日本地质调查局;②86.1×10-6~166.4×10-6,据日本地质调查局;③263.5×10-6,据文献[6];④、⑤317.8×10-6~679.5×10-6, 样品送ALS·Geochemistry检测,分析方法为ICP-MS;⑥294.91×10-6~317.80×10-6,样品送ALS·Geochemistry检测,分析方法为ICP-MS;⑦216.01×10-6~255.29×10-6,据文献[12];⑧195.94×10-6~538.99×10-6,据文献[12];⑨202.6×10-6,据文献[13];⑩(232±75)×10-6,据文献[6]

    Figure 1.  Distribution map of Granitoid intrusive rocks of different periods in Laos

    图 2  老挝不同地区花岗岩类样品

    Figure 2.  Granitoid samples from different regions of Laos

    图 3  老挝不同地区不同岩石与其风化壳稀土元素质量分数对比图

    注:风化壳矿石样品稀土品位:检测单位为博纳斯资源有限公司项目实验室,检测方法为EDTA滴定法。原岩稀土品位:①检测单位为ALS Geochemistry,检测方法为ICP-MS;②数据引自文献[28];③数据引自日本地质调查局(GSJ);④数据引自文献[12]

    Figure 3.  Comparison of REE contents between different rocks and weathering crusts in different regions of Laos

    图 4  风化壳剖面结构示意图

    注:由于赣南钻无法钻穿微风化层,微风化层和基岩样品均采自路边剥离边坡

    Figure 4.  Diagram of the sectional structure of the weathering crust

    图 5  川圹省某稀土矿钻孔柱状图(含稀土品位与钻孔深度关系)

    Figure 5.  Drilling hole histogram of an REE deposit in Xiangkhouang Province of Laos

    图 6  老挝川圹省某稀土矿地质剖面图

    Figure 6.  Geological section map of a REE mine in Xiangkhouang Province of Laos

    图 7  老挝主要稀土项目配分图

    Figure 7.  Partitioning of the main REE projects in Laos

    图 8  老挝川圹省主要稀土项目分布图

    Figure 8.  Distribution of the main REE projects in Xiengkhouang Province of Laos

    表  1  老挝不同期次花岗岩类侵入岩稀土质量分数

    Table  1.   The REE contents of granitic intrusive rocks from different periods in Laos

    序号 花岗岩类侵入岩期次 岩石命名 采样位置(图 1) w(REE)/10-6 数据来源
    志留纪 中-粗粒黑云母花岗闪长岩/花岗岩 波里坎塞省Nape地区 164.0~245.3 日本地质调查局
    石炭纪 中-细粒黑云母角闪石花岗闪长岩 赛松奔省孟洪县 86.1~166.4 日本地质调查局
    角闪石黑云母花岗岩 阿速坡省三赛县 263.5 文献[6]
    二叠纪- 三叠纪 中-细粒黑云母二长花岗岩 川圹省帕塞县 317.80~679.50
    中-细粒黑云母二长花岗岩 川圹省孟昆县 317.80~679.50
    中-粗粒黑云母二长花岗岩 川圹省孟昆县 294.91~317.80
    二长花岗岩 川圹省 216.01~255.29 文献[12]
    中-粗粒黑云母花岗岩 华潘省华孟县 195.94~538.99 文献[12]
    中粒黑云母花岗闪长岩 阿速坡省普翁县 202.66 文献[13]
    侏罗纪 斑状黑云母花岗岩 波里坎塞省Boneng地区 232±75 文献[6]
    注:①和②数据来自日本地质调查局(GSJ);④、⑤和⑥样品送ALS Geochemistry检测,分析方法为ICP-MS。采样位置见图 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  老挝稀土矿项目矿石样品采集登记表

    Table  2.   Ore sample collection of existing REE projects in Laos

    序号 样品编号 省份 采样点所属公司或区域 样品描述
    1 老挝2#综合样 川圹省帕塞县 老挝博纳斯独资有限公司 钻孔综合样
    2 3-E-5201 川圹省帕塞县 老挝博纳斯独资有限公司 钻孔综合样
    3 GJX-05 川圹省孟昆县 BSL和广健信工贸(老挝)有限公司 钻孔综合样
    4 A-BK-05 川圹省孟昆县 BSL和广健信工贸(老挝)有限公司 钻孔综合样
    5 村尾1号山2号井 川圹省帕塞县 东力胜工业开发有限公司 钻孔综合样
    6 ZK04 川圹省孟昆县 蓬萨塔维矿业有限公司 钻孔综合样
    7 IS-003 川圹省孟昆县 哈博罗矿业独资有限公司 钻孔综合样
    8 HP-H03 华潘省桑怒市 鸿胜矿业 矿土
    9 MHZK020 华潘省华孟县 阿西诺公司 钻孔综合样
    10 HP-H09 华潘省华孟县 中工稀土矿业(老挝)有限公司 矿土
    11 XT-1 华潘省桑怒市 中工稀土矿业(老挝)有限公司 稀土氧化物
    12 HP-H16 华潘省桑怒市 CV金泰工程有限公司1号矿权 矿土
    13 C矿 华潘省桑怒市 CV金泰工程有限公司2号矿权 矿土
    14 SSB-H02 赛松奔省赛松奔市 纳勐铜矿以北 矿土
    15 SSB-H32 赛松本省洪县 孟洪县以北 矿土
    16 LZ-08 赛松奔省赛松奔市 PS建设与旅游独资有限公司 矿土
    17 NS-H1 阿速坡省普翁县 南山金矿矿区12号采场 矿土
    18 01 琅勃拉邦省普古县 坡昆村东南 矿土
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  老挝主要稀土项目配分情况

    Table  3.   Patterns of main REE projects in Laos 稀土配分/10-6

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
    La2O3 22.40 23.68 24.57 22.64 18.58 27.43 36.49 26.88 19.92 34.36 26.56 24.47 35.80 23.01 13.63 6.23 26.07 24.57
    CeO2 2.16 2.15 3.75 3.52 0.93 5.96 3.01 2.59 2.01 0.87 3.49 5.29 7.05 7.11 10.86 3.71 2.70 3.75
    Pr6O11 5.38 5.43 5.78 6.57 4.29 6.59 6.79 4.15 5.38 10.28 7.04 7.22 6.32 12.45 5.42 1.29 6.00 5.78
    Nd2O3 21.02 19.37 20.57 24.85 15.20 23.11 22.03 12.83 20.72 36.93 24.98 24.89 20.11 38.38 20.79 4.71 21.40 20.57
    Sm2O3 4.79 4.51 4.48 5.27 4.41 4.59 4.00 2.67 4.73 6.62 5.00 4.21 3.20 1.74 4.12 1.55 4.05 4.48
    Eu2O3 0.98 0.90 0.60 0.87 0.75 0.77 0.92 0.63 0.88 0.29 0.94 0.97 0.67 0.35 0.65 0.31 1.15 0.60
    Gd2O3 5.17 4.74 4.31 4.55 5.15 4.16 3.60 4.09 5.09 2.55 4.70 4.00 2.89 4.71 4.41 3.85 3.92 4.31
    Tb4O7 0.77 0.75 0.77 0.75 0.87 0.65 0.56 0.74 0.80 0.30 0.67 0.58 0.45 0.22 0.73 0.92 0.59 0.77
    Dy2O3 4.21 4.68 4.21 3.85 5.46 3.48 2.89 4.52 4.93 1.15 3.85 3.24 2.72 1.55 4.47 6.82 3.29 4.21
    Ho2O3 0.84 0.86 0.79 0.72 1.11 0.66 0.53 0.94 0.92 0.22 0.71 0.63 0.54 0.27 0.93 1.49 0.68 0.79
    Er2O3 2.29 2.57 2.04 1.91 3.39 1.66 1.34 2.55 2.52 0.50 1.88 1.70 1.56 0.62 2.52 3.89 1.90 2.04
    Tm2O3 0.34 0.32 0.26 0.25 0.49 0.20 <0.20 0.32 0.35 <0.20 0.24 <0.20 0.21 <0.20 0.32 0.48 0.25 0.26
    Yb2O3 2.05 1.69 1.50 1.57 3.43 1.25 1.12 1.86 1.94 0.45 1.42 1.43 1.40 0.50 2.08 2.62 1.64 1.50
    Lu2O3 0.30 0.25 <0.2 0.22 0.49 <0.20 <0.20 0.26 0.27 <0.20 0.20 <0.20 0.20 <0.20 0.28 0.28 0.24 <0.2
    Y2O3 27.28 27.83 26.18 22.47 35.50 19.32 16.41 34.97 29.58 5.36 18.32 20.99 16.92 8.97 28.79 61.85 26.12 26.18
    REO 0.060 0.080 0.047 0.062 0.083 0.062 0.046 0.042 0.037 0.031 - 0.013 0.047 0.020 0.024 0.033 0.040 0.046
    LREE 50.96 50.63 54.67 57.58 39.00 63.09 68.32 46.45 48.03 82.44 62.07 61.87 69.28 80.95 50.70 15.94 56.17 54.67
    MREE 15.92 15.58 14.37 15.29 16.64 13.65 11.97 12.65 16.43 10.91 15.16 13.00 9.93 8.57 14.38 13.45 13.00 14.37
    HREE 5.82 5.69 4.59 4.67 8.91 3.77 2.99 5.93 6.00 1.17 4.45 3.76 3.91 1.39 6.13 8.76 4.71 4.59
    检测单位:国家钨与稀土产品质量监督检验中心;检测方法:离子型稀土矿化学分析方法(XB/T619-2015)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  2017-2020年中国进口缅甸稀土资源数量

    Table  4.   China′s imports of REE resources from Myanmar in 2017-2020

    2017 2018 2019 2020
    国内开采指标/t 17 900 19 150 19 000 19 150
    混合碳酸稀土/t 19 588.02 25 829.12 12 986.22 6 225.00
    未列明氧化物/t 369.72 8 147.30 14 427.59 17 512.55
    注:数据来自工信部、自然资源部和海关总署
    下载: 导出CSV
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