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贵州织金新华磷矿区风化磷块岩形成条件及风化淋滤富集机制初步研究

梁坤萍 程国繁 覃庆炎 吴荣 李斌

梁坤萍, 程国繁, 覃庆炎, 吴荣, 李斌. 贵州织金新华磷矿区风化磷块岩形成条件及风化淋滤富集机制初步研究[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(4): 172-183. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0110
引用本文: 梁坤萍, 程国繁, 覃庆炎, 吴荣, 李斌. 贵州织金新华磷矿区风化磷块岩形成条件及风化淋滤富集机制初步研究[J]. 地质科技通报, 2022, 41(4): 172-183. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0110
Liang Kunping, Cheng Guofan, Qin Qingyan, Wu Rong, Li Bin. A preliminary study on the formation conditions and weathering leaching enrichment mechanism of secondary phosphorite in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhijin, Guizhou[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(4): 172-183. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0110
Citation: Liang Kunping, Cheng Guofan, Qin Qingyan, Wu Rong, Li Bin. A preliminary study on the formation conditions and weathering leaching enrichment mechanism of secondary phosphorite in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhijin, Guizhou[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2022, 41(4): 172-183. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0110

贵州织金新华磷矿区风化磷块岩形成条件及风化淋滤富集机制初步研究

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2022.0110
基金项目: 

贵州省地质资源与地质工程人才基地项目 黔人领发[2018]3号

地质资源与地质工程贵州省重点学科建设计划 ZSXK[2018]001

贵州省岩溶工程地质与隐伏矿产资源特色重点实验室项目 黔教科研发[2018]205号

教育部首批全国高校黄大年式教师团队项目 教师函[2018]1号

贵州理工学院构造地质学重点课程建设项目 ZDKC201605

贵州理工学院"构造地质学"校级一流课程建设项目 2019

贵州理工学院高层次人才引进科研启动项目 地面TEM数据地形校正及电磁干扰压制技术研究(0203001018054)

详细信息
    作者简介:

    梁坤萍(1982—),女,现正攻读地质学专业硕士学位,主要从事矿物学、岩石学、矿床学研究工作。E-mail: 53199223@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    程国繁(1963—),男,教授,主要从事地质矿产勘查及构造地质教学研究工作。E-mail: chengguofan@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P619.2

A preliminary study on the formation conditions and weathering leaching enrichment mechanism of secondary phosphorite in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhijin, Guizhou

  • 摘要:

    贵州织金新华磷矿是我国西南地区著名的超大型含稀土低品位磷矿床, 矿床平均品位w(P2O5)为17.22%, 已探明磷矿石储量13.48亿t, 稀土资源量350万t。近年研究发现, 新华磷矿矿石品位的波动变化与风化淋滤富集作用关系密切。为了进一步阐明风化淋滤作用对磷矿元素地球化学的影响及磷矿的次生富集规律, 以戈仲伍矿段为重点研究对象, 对含磷岩系开展了野外观察描述, 应用连续敲块法采集化学分析样品19件, 运用光学显微镜进行岩矿鉴定样品16件, 并对样品进行了岩石成分鉴定及综合研究工作。研究结果表明, 风化磷矿中w(P2O5)比原生磷矿提高了8%~18%, w(MgO)比原生磷矿降低了4%~7%, 风化强度处于弱到成熟阶段。织金新华风化磷矿的形成受到岩性条件、地质构造、水文条件等因素控制。本研究可以为深入研究该矿床的次生风化成矿作用对磷矿石化学成分的影响及为新的矿产研究提供资料, 为丰富我国风化淋积型磷矿床的成矿理论提供新认识, 为该矿区风化磷矿资源的合理开发利用提供理论指导。

     

  • 图 1  贵州织金新华磷矿区地质图(据文献[3]修改)

    1.灯影组;2.戈仲伍组(磷矿层);3.牛蹄塘组-明心寺组;4.大埔组;5.断层;6.公路;7.河流;8.地点;9.磷矿点;10.矿段划分及名称;11.背斜轴迹;12.取样位置;13.地层界线

    Figure 1.  Geological map of the Xinhua phosphate mining area in Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    图 2  新华磷矿含磷岩系柱状图(据参考文献[22]修改)

    Figure 2.  Column map of the phosphate rock system from the Xinhua phosphate mining area

    图 3  戈仲伍组底部(下矿层底部)岩性柱状图

    Figure 3.  Lithological column of the bottom of Gezhongwu Formation

    图 4  显微镜下磷矿石结构特征

    a.原生磷矿石的不等粒砂屑结构(基底式胶结);b.原生磷矿石的不等粒砂屑结构(孔隙式胶结);c.风化磷矿石的不等粒砂屑结构(孔隙式胶结);d.风化磷矿石的不等粒砂屑结构(孔隙式胶结)(胶结物有铁质)

    Figure 4.  Structural characteristics of phosphate ore under a polarizing microscope

    图 5  织金新华磷矿矿石构造特征

    a.原生磷块岩条带状构造,砂屑磷块岩(灰色)与硅质磷块岩(深灰色)呈条带状互层;b原生磷块岩透镜状构造,砂屑磷块岩(灰色)呈透镜体,被含硅质磷块岩(深灰色)包裹;c.风化磷块岩中的条带状构造;d.风化磷矿石的溶孔构造,砂屑磷块岩被溶蚀后形成大小不等的溶蚀孔洞及孔隙

    Figure 5.  Structural photographs of phosphate ore in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhijin Guizhou

    图 6  织金新华磷矿戈仲伍南构造地球化学采样剖面

    1.白云质磷块岩;2.硅质磷块岩;3.断层角砾岩;4.逆断层;5.正断层;6.采样位置

    Figure 6.  Structural geochemical sampling profile through southern Gezhongwu in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhijin County, Guizhou

    图 7  织金新华磷矿戈仲伍构造地球化学剖面

    Figure 7.  Structural geochemical profile through Gezhongwu in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhijin County, Guizhou

    图 8  织金新华磷矿高家桥采样剖面

    1.岩矿鉴定样采样位置;2.化学分析样采样位置;3.砂屑磷块岩;4.含硅质黄铁矿质砂质粉砂岩;5.炭质泥页岩

    Figure 8.  Sampling section through Gaojiaqiao in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhijin County, Guizhou

    表  1  原生磷矿石与风化磷矿石的矿物成分及其质量分数变化

    Table  1.   Comparing mineral composition and content between primary phosphate ore and weathering phosphate ore

    样品编号 矿石类型 矿石名称 矿物成分wB/%
    磷灰石 白云石 石英 黄铁矿 铁质 泥质
    G-1B 原生 含硅质白云质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 40 40 18 1< 1< 1<
    G-3B 原生 含硅质白云质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 40 40 18 1< 1< 1<
    GH-1B 原生 微含泥质硅质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 65 0 32 1< 1< 2
    GH-5B 原生 含硅质白云质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 40 45 13 1< 1< 1<
    G-2B 风化 含硅质白云质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 75 13 10 1< 1< 1<
    GH-2B 风化 含硅质白云质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 40 45 13 1< 1< 1<
    GH-3B 风化 含硅质白云质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 50 40 8 1< 1< 1<
    GH-6B 风化 硅质砂屑(生物屑)磷块岩 60 0 38 1< 1< 1<
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  织金新华磷矿风化磷矿石判别指标

    Table  2.   Chemical index for weathered phosphate ore in the Xinhua phosphate mining area, Zhyijin

    样品编号 风化指标
    实验室编号 野外编号 w(CO2)<5.4 w(MgO)<1.4 P2O5/(MgO+CO2)>3.8 P2O5/CO2>4.9 w(2P2O5+H.P) ≥74% CaO/P2O5<1.5
    15A397 GH-2 3.4 74 1.5
    15A398 GH-3 4.21 1.15 5.1 7 77 1.4
    15A399 GH-4 2.40 0.21 11.9 13 80 1.3
    15A401 GH-6 2.27 0.17 11.7 13 83 1.4
    15A409 GY-4 1.5
    15A413 CTY-1 5.23 80 1.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  样品主要成分化学分析结果

    Table  3.   Main chemical composition of samples

    实验室编号 野外编号 P2O5 Al2O3 Fe2O3 SiO2 CaO MgO CO2 H.P
    wB/%
    15A396 GH-1 16.40 1.05 0.41 7.96 39.69 9.82 21.18 7.00
    15A397 GH-2 26.62 1.06 0.24 20.06 40.32 1.94 5.96 20.76
    15A398 GH-3 29.56 0.70 0.27 17.89 42.56 1.15 4.21 17.37
    15A399 GH-4 30.96 1.17 0.22 19.57 41.68 0.21 2.40 18.30
    15A400 GH-5 12.07 1.39 0.21 15.02 33.82 11.05 22.98 13.67
    15A401 GH-6 28.56 0.75 0.18 25.89 38.77 0.17 2.27 25.68
    15A402 GH-7 30.91 1.00 0.48 8.43 46.01 2.15 6.96 6.86
    15A403 GH-8 21.69 0.74 0.20 9.06 41.87 6.97 16.41 8.28
    15A404 GH-9 15.78 1.26 2.12 19.38 34.86 5.84 15.83 18.00
    15A405 GH-10 22.28 2.49 1.70 18.40 37.06 3.33 9.03 16.96
    15A406 GY-1 21.46 0.22 0.34 2.53 45.12 7.27 19.25 2.19
    15A407 GY-2 19.72 0.83 0.24 2.27 44.47 9.00 20.81 1.63
    15A408 GY-3 21.04 0.88 0.14 3.57 43.78 8.85 19.23 2.43
    15A409 GY-4 31.50 0.83 0.41 2.18 48.70 3.60 8.74 1.00
    15A410 G-1 16.13 0.77 0.07 9.30 38.40 8.84 24.41 8.21
    15A411 G-2 24.48 0.71 0.07 9.43 43.65 4.97 13.23 8.29
    15A412 G-3 16.42 1.05 0.07 6.00 42.01 10.38 22.00 1.20
    15A413 CTY-1 14.76 1.36 0.34 51.48 22.68 2.02 5.23 50.87
    15A414 CTY-2 14.59 0.99 0.14 20.47 34.22 8.19 19.18 19.36
    注:H.P为酸不溶物;测试方法:(原子吸收)分光光谱;测试单位:中化地质矿山遵义实验中心
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-08
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