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贵州织金新华戈仲伍组含磷岩系沉积环境对成磷作用的制约

汪宇航 谢宏 张兰 王昌建 卢正浩 白洋 王孟斋

汪宇航, 谢宏, 张兰, 王昌建, 卢正浩, 白洋, 王孟斋. 贵州织金新华戈仲伍组含磷岩系沉积环境对成磷作用的制约[J]. 地质科技通报, 2023, 42(6): 201-214. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220204
引用本文: 汪宇航, 谢宏, 张兰, 王昌建, 卢正浩, 白洋, 王孟斋. 贵州织金新华戈仲伍组含磷岩系沉积环境对成磷作用的制约[J]. 地质科技通报, 2023, 42(6): 201-214. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220204
Wang Yuhang, Xie Hong, Zhang Lan, Wang Changjian, Lu Zhenghao, Bai Yang, Wang Mengzhai. Constraints of sedimentary environment on phosphorization of phosphorus-bearing rock series in the Xinhua Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2023, 42(6): 201-214. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220204
Citation: Wang Yuhang, Xie Hong, Zhang Lan, Wang Changjian, Lu Zhenghao, Bai Yang, Wang Mengzhai. Constraints of sedimentary environment on phosphorization of phosphorus-bearing rock series in the Xinhua Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2023, 42(6): 201-214. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220204

贵州织金新华戈仲伍组含磷岩系沉积环境对成磷作用的制约

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220204
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 42062009

贵州省科技计划项目 黔科合基础[2020]1Y158

贵州大学引进人才科研项目 贵大人基合字[2015]第37号

详细信息
    作者简介:

    汪宇航(1998—), 男, 现正攻读地质学专业硕士学位, 主要从事沉积矿床的研究。E-mail: 15286517949@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    谢宏(1969—), 女, 教授, 主要从事沉积矿床的研究与教学工作。E-mail: xh5033@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P619.2

Constraints of sedimentary environment on phosphorization of phosphorus-bearing rock series in the Xinhua Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

  • 摘要:

    贵州织金新华早寒武世超大型富稀土磷矿床属于典型的海相沉积型矿床, 长期以来, 对其成矿环境及成矿机制的认识尚存在分歧。在重点研究含磷岩系岩(矿)石显微特征的基础上, 结合元素地球化学证据, 求证了戈仲伍组含磷岩系沉积环境及其形成机制, 丰富了扬子陆块同类型矿产的研究资料。该含磷岩系从下到上, 矿石结构构造发生了规律性的变化: 颗粒稍变细; 粒间填隙物由以亮晶白云石胶结物为主变为硅质、胶磷矿等泥晶基质, 再变为以亮晶白云石胶结物为主, 最后变为泥晶胶磷矿、硅质等; 胶结方式由以孔隙式胶结为主转换为孔隙式-基底式胶结, 支撑类型由颗粒支撑变化为颗粒-杂基支撑; 岩层单层厚度变薄, 颜色变深, 交错层理变得不发育; 反映含磷岩系沉积于强水动力的潮下带, 上部沉积水体较下部有所加深、水动力条件稍变弱。含磷岩系显著的Ce负异常(δCe介于0.32~0.39)、较低的Ni/Co比值(0.98~6.07)和V/Cr比值(0.57~12.50), 表现出沉积水体具有与现代海洋环境相似的氧化特征; 较低的103·Sr/Ca比值(2.00~3.38)及1/Σ(Al2O3+TiO2)比值(0.57~3.45)说明古水深总体较浅, 但变化频繁; Fe, Cu, Ba含量分布特点指示下部碳酸盐古生产力比上部高。在各种条件耦合的古环境中, 磷块岩经历沉淀-冲搅-颠选-胶结-固结作用最终富集形成。

     

  • 图 1  贵州织金新华磷矿地质简图(据文献[7]修编)

    Figure 1.  Geological sketch of the Xinhua phosphate deposit in Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    图 2  贵州织金戈仲伍组含磷岩系采样位置图(a)及野外剖面照片(b)

    Figure 2.  Sampling location map (a) and field profile photos (b) of the phosphorus-bearing rock series in the Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    图 3  贵州贵织金戈仲伍组磷块岩岩(矿)结构特征

    a.长条形小壳化石(ZJH-1);b.尖锥形小壳化石(ZJH-2);c.钉子形软舌螺(ZJH-3);d.软舌螺内部特征(ZJH-5);e~g.胶磷矿砂屑(ZJH-6、ZJH-8、ZJH-9);h.砾屑(ZJH-1);i.复鲕(ZJH-1);j.真鲕(ZJH-2);k.薄皮鲕(ZJH-2);l.椭圆形团块(ZJH-1);m.藻团块(ZJH-4);n.长条形团块(ZJH-6);o.不规则形团块(ZJH-3);p.黄铁矿团粒及有机质(ZJH-10)

    Figure 3.  Structural features of phosphorite rocks(ores) in the Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    图 4  贵州织金戈仲伍组磷块岩构造特征

    a.戈仲伍组下部条带状构造(第1层);b.戈仲伍组上部条带状构造(第4层);c.层纹状构造(第3层);d, e.槽状交错层理(第2层);f.人字形交错层理(第3层);g.透镜状(第3层);h.同生角砾(第3层);i.受应力挤压变形的楔状交错层理(第5层)

    Figure 4.  Structural characteristics of phosphorite in the Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    图 5  贵州织金戈仲伍组磷块岩显微特征

    Dol.白云石;Clh.胶磷矿;CM.黏土矿物;Q.石英;Ap.磷灰石。a.白云质磷块岩(ZJH-1),粒屑主要为生物屑和砾屑,生物屑呈定向排列,白云质胶结,颗粒支撑,(+);b.白云质磷块岩(ZJH-6),粒屑主要为生物屑和砂屑,生物屑呈半定向排列,白云质胶结,颗粒支撑,(-);c.磷块岩(ZJH-8),砂屑、生物屑定向排列,填隙物以胶磷矿、硅质为主,颗粒-杂基支撑,(+);d.硅质磷块岩(ZJH-5),硅化明显,砾屑、生物屑定向排列,填隙物以硅质、胶磷矿为主,颗粒-杂基支撑,(-)

    Figure 5.  Microscopic features of phosphorite in the Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    图 6  戈仲伍组磷块岩中w(CaO)、w(MgO)与w(P2O5)的相关性

    Figure 6.  Co-variations of CaO, MgO and P2O5 contents from phosphorites in the Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    图 7  戈仲伍组含磷岩系沉积特征与沉积环境

    Figure 7.  Sedimentary characteristics and environments of phosphorus-bearing rock series in the Gezhongwu Formation

    图 8  戈仲伍组含磷岩系特征元素变化图

    Figure 8.  Variation diagram of characteristic elements of phosphorus-bearing rock series in the Gezhongwu Formation

    图 9  戈仲武组磷块岩δCe与ΣREE相关性

    Figure 9.  Diagram of δCe and ΣREE of phosphorite in the Gezhongwu Formation

    图 10  戈仲伍组磷块岩稀土元素PAAS标准化配分模式曲线图

    Figure 10.  PAAS normalized REE+Y distribution patterns of phosphorite in the Gezhongwu Formation

    图 11  贵州织金戈仲伍磷矿成矿模式示意图

    Figure 11.  Ore-forming model of phosphorite in the Gezhongwu profile, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    表  1  贵州织金戈仲伍组含磷岩系矿层及围岩主量元素质量分数及比值

    Table  1.   Content of major elements in the ore horizon and wall-rock of the phosphorus-bearing rock series in the Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    样品 ZJH-1 ZJH-2 ZJH-3 ZJH-4 ZJH-5 ZJH-6 ZJH-7 ZJH-8 ZJH-9 ZJH-10 ZJH-11 ZJH-12 ZJH-13 磷块岩平均值
    CaO 44.8 42.5 46.2 40.4 26.7 42.9 36.0 51.1 54.5 52.4 0.50 0.59 2.77 43.7
    P2O5 26.6 21.9 33.3 27.9 11.9 22.1 16.2 35.6 39.3 38.7 0.21 0.32 0.68 27.4
    SiO2 4.92 3.16 12.4 23.8 37.0 4.5 14.8 3.20 0.55 2.76 55.9 56.9 55.4 10.7
    MgO 5.85 9.14 0.50 1.22 6.67 8.83 9.00 2.13 0.20 0.17 1.65 1.41 1.56 4.37
    Fe2O3 2.34 1.91 2.90 0.47 0.56 0.64 0.68 0.82 0.80 0.81 5.24 3.72 2.95 1.19
    Al2O3 0.71 0.36 0.73 0.85 1.53 0.37 1.65 0.68 0.21 0.90 16.5 17.4 16.1 0.80
    Na2O 0.13 0.09 0.17 0.14 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.15 0.15 0.19 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.13
    K2O 0.11 0.05 0.22 0.23 0.38 0.07 0.41 0.13 0.02 0.18 4.80 4.96 4.71 0.18
    TiO2 wB/% 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.69 0.94 0.65 0.05
    MnO 0.19 0.11 0.09 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.08
    SrO 0.08 0.07 0.10 0.08 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.10 0.12 0.10 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.08
    BaO 0.05 0.08 0.24 0.13 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.45 0.07
    Cr2O3 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01
    烧失量 14.1 20.4 3.03 4.01 14.8 19.9 20.2 5.46 2.19 2.41 13.5 12.9 14.5 10.6
    总计 99.9 99.7 99.9 99.2 99.8 99.6 99.2 99.5 98.2 98.7 99.2 99.4 100 99.4
    Ca 28.7 26.5 29.6 26.7 17.6 28.1 23.8 32.6 34.6 34.0 0.38 0.42 1.87 28.2
    Fe 1.47 1.18 1.84 0.35 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.54 0.54 0.55 3.75 2.65 2.10 0.78
    Al wB/% 0.41 0.20 0.40 0.48 0.83 0.22 0.91 0.39 0.15 0.50 7.61 7.98 7.73 0.45
    Mn 0.13 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05
    Fe/Mn 11.5 16.1 31.8 12.7 10.6 7.28 7.97 30.7 26.2 43.3 721 564 438 19.8
    Al/Ti 12.1 12.5 14.3 20.9 27.7 14.7 45.5 21.7 3.41 20.0 21.0 15.7 21.1 19.3
    Ca/(Ca+Fe) 0.95 0.96 0.94 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.09 0.14 0.47 0.97
    1/∑(Al2O3+TiO2) 1.32 2.63 1.30 1.12 0.65 2.63 0.57 1.43 3.45 1.06 0.06 0.05 0.06 1.62
    岩性 白云质磷块岩 白云质磷块岩 磷块岩 硅质磷块岩 硅质磷块岩 白云质磷块岩 硅质白云质磷块岩 磷块岩 磷块岩 磷块岩 黑色页岩 黑色页岩 镍钼富集层
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  织金戈仲伍组含矿岩系及围岩微量、稀土元素质量分数及比值

    Table  2.   Contents of trace elelments and REEs of phosphorus-bearing rock series and wall-rock and specific ratios in the Gezhongwu Formation, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province

    样品 ZJH-1 ZJH-2 ZJH-3 ZJH-4 ZJH-5 ZJH-6 ZJH-7 ZJH-8 ZJH-9 ZJH-10 ZJH-11 ZJH-12 ZJH-13 磷块岩平均值 地壳丰度
    As 5.00 71.0 142 7.00 8.00 < 5.00 5.00 24.0 12.0 14.0 88.0 419 519 29.3 1.80
    Ba 550 870 2460 1400 210 290 240 300 430 520 410 500 190 727 425
    Co 0.60 3.80 3.00 1.20 8.70 0.90 1.10 2.70 5.50 2.50 11.4 9.20 8.90 3.00 25.0
    Cr 13.0 8.00 12.0 11.0 7.00 7.00 17.0 10.0 14.0 14.0 87.0 168 94.0 11.3 100
    Cu 8.60 156 371 102 12.7 6.60 15.6 7.30 8.40 152 35.7 35.6 72.1 84.0 55.0
    Ga 2.88 2.79 3.46 3.43 2.51 1.81 3.74 3.09 2.9 3.59 21.0 24.2 23.4 3.02 15.0
    Ni 3.10 13.7 18.2 3.10 10.4 1.00 1.40 5.20 5.40 12.3 57.7 394 742 7.38 75.0
    Sb 5.59 41.4 86.1 15.3 2.42 1.40 8.45 3.63 4.07 72.0 12.2 14.6 40.0 24.0 0.20
    Sc wB/10-6 4.30 3.30 5.30 3.10 3.10 2.30 3.40 3.00 2.40 2.20 13.6 11.9 13.2 3.24 22.0
    Sr 789 658 1 000 787 351 741 536 967 1135 967 53.7 53.0 125 793 375
    Th 5.10 2.60 5.00 4.60 3.10 2.60 4.50 4.60 7.30 4.20 12.3 11.8 9.70 4.36 9.60
    Ti 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.36 0.51 0.37 0.03
    U 8.60 11.5 12.9 10.1 4.70 4.90 7.70 9.90 12.8 12.8 22.6 28.1 39.5 9.59 2.70
    V 21.0 100 73.0 22.0 13.0 13.0 23.0 12.0 8.00 57.0 307 2440 395 34.2 135
    W 0.40 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.40 0.80 0.60 1.60 3.10 1.90 0.48 1.50
    Zr 4.30 9.70 19.0 1.80 2.80 2.10 2.30 3.00 3.50 9.30 124 126 122 5.82 165
    Zn 8.00 200 369 43.0 26.0 8.00 34.0 370 368 354 46.0 178 672 178 70.0
    Sr/Ba 1.43 0.76 0.41 0.56 1.67 2.56 2.23 3.22 2.64 1.86 0.13 0.11 0.66 1.73 0.88
    103·Sr/Ca 2.75 2.48 3.38 2.95 2.00 2.64 2.25 2.97 3.28 2.84 14.1 12.6 6.68 2.75
    Ni/Co 5.17 3.61 6.07 2.58 1.20 1.11 1.27 1.93 0.98 4.92 5.06 42.8 83.4 2.88 3.00
    Cu/Zn 1.08 0.78 1.01 2.36 0.49 0.83 0.46 0.02 0.02 0.43 0.78 0.20 0.11 0.75 0.79
    V/Cr 1.62 12.50 6.08 2.00 1.86 1.86 1.35 1.20 0.57 4.07 3.53 14.5 4.20 3.31 1.35
    La 296 213 310 280 100 195 170 316 429 332 32.9 30.2 30.1 264 30.0
    Ce 176 159 209 193 70.8 110 119 183 245 190 72.1 43.7 69.4 165 60.0
    Pr 47.3 40.3 55.0 51.7 19.0 32.0 31.6 53.3 70.8 55.3 7.36 3.89 7.44 45.6 8.20
    Nd 210 184 246 232 80.3 131 129 221 286 225 25.7 12.1 24.5 194 28.0
    Sm 37.0 35.6 45.0 42.4 15.4 23.3 23.7 40.2 51.9 41.0 4.17 1.61 4.27 35.6 6.00
    Eu 9.08 11.3 13.9 12.5 4.65 6.38 6.72 10.6 13.5 11.2 0.94 0.38 0.99 9.97 1.20
    Gd 47.0 44.9 57.6 52.6 19.9 31.3 32.2 53.8 69.1 56.9 4.84 2.15 4.49 46.5 5.40
    Tb wB/10-6 6.71 6.23 8.08 7.27 2.75 4.51 4.70 7.62 9.96 8.03 0.70 0.27 0.65 6.59 0.90
    Dy 37.8 34.0 44.6 39.7 14.7 26.0 26.6 43.5 55.4 46.1 4.20 1.68 3.75 36.8 3.00
    Ho 7.91 6.91 9.23 8.10 3.10 5.44 5.59 9.15 11.4 9.66 0.89 0.37 0.83 7.65 1.20
    Er 21.9 18.4 25.2 22.3 8.39 15.6 15.4 25.5 32.2 26.6 2.76 1.34 2.67 21.1 2.80
    Tm 2.42 1.96 2.69 2.36 0.93 1.69 1.71 2.78 3.48 2.83 0.42 0.23 0.37 2.29 0.48
    Yb 12.05 9.65 13.35 11.60 4.84 8.83 8.69 14.05 17.25 14.10 2.91 1.92 2.61 11.44 3.00
    Lu 1.48 1.17 1.69 1.41 0.63 1.13 1.11 1.75 2.15 1.81 0.45 0.31 0.40 1.43 0.50
    Y 429 346 491 428 159 305 283 502 636 520 25.0 12.8 24.8 410 33.0
    ∑REE 1341 1112 1532 1385 504 896 858 1484 1933 1540 185 113 177 1259 184
    ∑LREE 775 643 879 812 290 497 479 824 1096 854 143 91.9 137 715 133
    ∑HREE 566 469 653 573 214 399 379 660 837 686 42.2 21.1 40.6 544 50.3
    (La/Yb)N 2.46 2.21 2.32 2.41 2.07 2.21 1.96 2.25 2.49 2.35 1.13 1.57 1.15 2.31 1.00
    ∑LREE/∑HREE 1.37 1.37 1.34 1.42 1.35 1.24 1.26 1.25 1.31 1.24 3.40 4.36 3.37 1.32 2.65
    δCe 0.34 0.39 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.32 0.37 0.32 0.32 0.32 1.07 0.89 1.07 0.35 0.42
    注:δCe=2CeN/LaN+PrN,N代表澳大利亚后太古宙页岩标准化后的值[30],地壳元素丰度数据引自文献[31]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  颗粒与泥晶比值及水动力能量

    Table  3.   Ratio of grains to micrity and hydrodynamic energy

    颗粒/泥晶 颗粒φB/% 沉积环境水动力能量
    9∶1 90 强动荡水体沉积
    75 强-中等动荡水体沉积
    1∶1 50 中等动荡水体沉积
    1∶9 25 弱-间歇动荡水体沉积
    10 静水沉积
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-09
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