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基于FLAC3D与无人机航测的全部垮落法采煤塌陷分析

王志民 秦越强 柴晨晖 孙宇飞 李朋伟 岳喜能

王志民, 秦越强, 柴晨晖, 孙宇飞, 李朋伟, 岳喜能. 基于FLAC3D与无人机航测的全部垮落法采煤塌陷分析[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 204-215. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220250
引用本文: 王志民, 秦越强, 柴晨晖, 孙宇飞, 李朋伟, 岳喜能. 基于FLAC3D与无人机航测的全部垮落法采煤塌陷分析[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 204-215. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220250
WANG Zhimin, QIN Yueqiang, CHAI Chenhui, SUN Yufei, LI Pengwei, YUE Xineng. Coal mining collapse analysis of total caving method based on FLAC3D and UAV aerial surveying[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 204-215. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220250
Citation: WANG Zhimin, QIN Yueqiang, CHAI Chenhui, SUN Yufei, LI Pengwei, YUE Xineng. Coal mining collapse analysis of total caving method based on FLAC3D and UAV aerial surveying[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 204-215. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220250

基于FLAC3D与无人机航测的全部垮落法采煤塌陷分析

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220250
基金项目: 

中国地质调查局项目"鄂尔多斯市准格尔旗煤炭矿集区生态修复支撑调查" DD20208078

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王志民, E-mail: 85689352@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    秦越强, E-mail: qyq331851187@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P694

Coal mining collapse analysis of total caving method based on FLAC3D and UAV aerial surveying

More Information
  • 摘要:

    内蒙古串草圪旦煤矿位于黄河中游上段,其全部垮落法采煤导致大面积塌陷,地表生态和环境问题频发。为研究采空区地表裂缝发育规律及塌陷应力与位移场演化特征以串草圪旦煤矿6102工作面为研究对象,利用无人机航测查清了地表裂缝分布范围及规律,构建了FLAC3D数值模型并计算分析了采空区围岩应力及位移变化,将分析结果与无人机航测结果进行了相互验证。结果表明:(1)塌陷主要以地裂缝为表现形式,主要分布于矿区西北部及中西部。工作面发育2类地裂缝,一类为弧形阶梯式裂缝群,呈平行分布且以间隔5~20 m出现,大部分形成阶梯式高度为15~130 cm的错台,裂缝以3°~5°的偏角垂直工作面推进方向发育;另一类为直线型边缘裂缝带,拉张破坏严重,平行工作面外围呈带状发育,少数可展布于工作面内部,最外围裂缝至工作面的距离分别为38,53 m。(2)由于地下煤层开挖,采空区顶板出现明显的"马鞍状"拉应力集中区,且随着开挖的推进地表集中区拉应力先增大后减小,最大值为0.181 MPa;(3)采空区顶部完全垮塌,地表垂直位移最大值在采空区正中间,最大值约5.5 m;地表水平位移最大值位于采空区煤柱正上方,最大值1.93 m。(4)数值模拟计算的沉降量、裂缝角与无人机航测数据基本一致。研究成果可为煤层开采带来的生态环境问题解决方案提供参考依据。

     

  • 图 1  串草圪旦矿区位置图

    Figure 1.  Location of the Chuancaogedan Coal Mine area

    图 2  串草圪旦煤矿I-I′地质剖面

    Figure 2.  I-I′ geological section of Chuancaogedan Coal Mine

    图 3  研究技术路线

    Figure 3.  Research technical route

    图 4  无人机航线图

    Figure 4.  Map of UAV route

    图 5  工作区0.05 m航飞正射遥感影像

    Figure 5.  0.05 m aero-flying ortho remote sensing image in working area

    图 6  局部放大的工作区航飞影像(DOM)(a)和立体地貌(DSM)(b)

    Figure 6.  Local magnified navigation image(DOM)(a) and stereo landform(DSM) (b) of workspace

    图 7  6102工作面地裂缝分布图

    Figure 7.  Distribution of the ground cracks in the 6102 working face

    图 8  弧形裂缝

    Figure 8.  Curved ground crack

    图 9  直线型裂缝

    Figure 9.  Linear ground crack

    图 10  6102工作面三维地质模型

    Figure 10.  3D geological model of 6102 working face

    图 11  模型边界约束

    Figure 11.  Model boundary constraints

    图 12  煤层开挖σ1云图

    Figure 12.  σ1 cloud map of coal seam excavation

    图 13  开挖步数与距离关系(X=250 m; Z=35 m)

    Figure 13.  Relationship between the number of excavation steps and distance (X=250 m; Z=35 m)

    图 14  煤层开挖Z位移云图

    Figure 14.  Z displacement cloud map of coal seam excavation

    图 15  地表下沉量曲线

    Figure 15.  Surface subsidence curve

    图 16  地表倾斜度曲线

    Figure 16.  Surface inclination curve

    图 17  地表水平移动曲线

    Figure 17.  Horizontal surface movement curve

    图 18  地表水平变形曲线

    Figure 18.  Surface horizontal deformation curve

    图 19  不同开挖步数的裂缝角

    Figure 19.  Crack angle of excavation steps

    图 20  6102工作面裂缝影响角计算图

    Figure 20.  Calculation diagram of the crack influence angle of 6102 working face

    图 21  I-I′剖面地形变化对比(2011—2021年)

    Figure 21.  Comparison of topographic changes in the I-I′ section(2011-2021)

    图 22  无人机DEM数据分析与FLAC3D数值模拟的地表位移对比

    Figure 22.  Comparison between UAV DEM data analysis and FLAC3D numerical simulation of surface displacement

    表  1  CW-15无人机性能指标

    Table  1.   Performance indexes of CW-15 UAV

    性能指标 参数
    机长/mm 1 720
    翼展/mm 3 610
    飞行高度/m 5 000
    整机重量/kg 16.5
    航摄仪像素 4 200万
    分辨率 7 952×5 304
    巡航速度/(m·s-1) 19
    3 kg载荷续航时间/min 160
    抗风能力/级 6
    降落精度/m 0.1
    定焦镜头/mm 35
    CCD全画幅 35.9 mm×24 mm
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  岩层物理力学参数

    Table  2.   Physical and mechanical parameters of rock strata

    岩性 岩层厚度/m 密度/(kg·m-3) 内摩擦角/(°) 凝聚力/MPa 抗拉强度/MPa 泊松比ν 体积模量/GPa 剪切模量/GPa
    黄土 35 1 860 28 0.03 0.18 0.31 1.96 0.75
    砂质泥岩 19 2 720 42 2.30 6.80 0.23 7.44 5.07
    细粒砂岩 14 2 580 45 1.40 4.50 0.22 7.80 5.14
    砂质泥岩 32 2 690 43 3.20 2.80 0.23 5.31 3.95
    细粒砂岩 9 2 570 40 2.70 1.90 0.22 5.04 3.43
    砂质泥岩 14 2 770 38 3.30 3.20 0.22 1.56 1.05
    细粒砂岩 16 2 910 40 3.00 3.20 0.22 5.54 3.45
    砂质泥岩 6 2 740 39 4.20 3.10 0.24 3.69 2.52
    6# 10 1 530 25 0.90 0.30 0.35 2.22 0.74
    砂质泥岩 9 2 740 39 4.20 3.10 0.24 3.69 2.52
    细粒砂岩 16 2 910 40 3.10 3.60 0.22 5.54 3.45
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-01
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-20
  • 修回日期:  2022-08-19

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