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深时源-汇系统要素的常用定量分析方法

陈星渝 张志杰 万力 袁选俊 周川闽 成大伟 刘银河

陈星渝, 张志杰, 万力, 袁选俊, 周川闽, 成大伟, 刘银河. 深时源-汇系统要素的常用定量分析方法[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 89-107. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220277
引用本文: 陈星渝, 张志杰, 万力, 袁选俊, 周川闽, 成大伟, 刘银河. 深时源-汇系统要素的常用定量分析方法[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 89-107. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220277
CHEN Xingyu, ZHANG Zhijie, WAN Li, YUAN Xuanjun, ZHOU Chuanmin, CHENG Dawei, LIU Yinhe. Quantitative analysis methods of source-to-sink systems in deep-time and their progress[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 89-107. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220277
Citation: CHEN Xingyu, ZHANG Zhijie, WAN Li, YUAN Xuanjun, ZHOU Chuanmin, CHENG Dawei, LIU Yinhe. Quantitative analysis methods of source-to-sink systems in deep-time and their progress[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 89-107. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220277

深时源-汇系统要素的常用定量分析方法

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220277
基金项目: 

国家油气重大专项 2017ZX05001

中国石油天然气股份有限公司科学研究与技术开发项目 2019B-0307

中国石油天然气股份有限公司科学研究与技术开发项目 2021DJ0401

详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈星渝, E-mail: xingyuchen@pku.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    张志杰, E-mail: zhzhijie@petrochina.com.cn

  • 中图分类号: P512.2

Quantitative analysis methods of source-to-sink systems in deep-time and their progress

More Information
  • 摘要:

    源-汇系统研究是构造地质学、沉积学和层序地层学的综合,因其整体性、动态化和半定量-定量的特点受到了广泛关注。首先阐述了目前深时(前第四纪)源-汇系统的关键问题是物质平衡的定量表征及搬运过程对沉积物的控制,由于地层记录缺失和参数获取困难等原因,研究仍极具挑战。随后综述了深时源-汇系统定量分析方法,可分为地质年代学法、将今论古法和沉积学法。各方法通过获取地貌要素、水力学参数、侵蚀速率、沉积通量等信息,建立"源""汇"之间的定量关系,进而重建盆地沉积充填演化史。通过系统介绍不同方法的基本原理、相关参数,对比其优越性及局限性,认为地质年代学法应用较广,核心在于物源示踪;将今论古法关键是地质背景的类比及地质参数的选择;沉积学法受多变量控制,需兼顾构造-气候背景及研究尺度。最后对深时源-汇系统定量分析的发展进行了展望,在"将今论古"这一重要思想指导下,需着眼于物源体系、沉积物搬运路径、沉积物分配关系、系统内的各要素及其耦合作用,需注重多时间尺度的定量表征、多学科交叉的动态研究。而相较于大陆边缘源-汇系统,陆相湖盆源-汇系统模式与预测模型有待进一步完善。

     

  • 图 1  源-汇系统主控因素的时间尺度与空间范围的关系(改自文献[14-15])

    Figure 1.  Timescales of forcing factors in source-to-sink systems relative to their spatial extent

    图 2  准噶尔盆地西北缘玛湖-中拐地区中二叠统下乌尔禾组沉积区与潜在物源区的锆石U-Pb年代学特征对比

    a.利用碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄进行物源分析的方法示意图(改自文献[15])。其中,沉积区沉积岩的碎屑锆石年龄分布可与潜在物源区的结晶基底年龄对比,从而确定物源区,同时还可大致判断物源区C的供给影响更大; b.西准噶尔地区潜在物源区岩浆锆石年龄分布特征; c.准噶尔盆地沉积区碎屑锆石年龄分布特征(改自文献[34])

    Figure 2.  Comparison of zircon U-Pb geochronological characteristics between the sink area and potential source area of the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe Formation in the Mahu-Zhongguai area, northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin

    图 3  碎屑锆石(U-Th)-He和U-Pb双重测年法进行物源分析的原理示意图(改自文献[42])

    图a表示沉积区的碎屑矿物来自1个火山A和4个冷却年龄不同的地形BCDE,每个物源区可能具有相似的U /Pb或(U-Th)-He年龄,但是它们的组合却截然不同。由于地形B和C的U/Pb年龄是无法区分的,因此仅通过结晶年龄无法确定碎屑矿物的来源(相同的结晶年龄,不同的冷却年龄)。类似地,由于地形A和B,D和E的(U-Th)-He年龄相似,因此仅靠冷却年龄无法将A与B、D与E区分。根据图b的双重测年结果可区分所有的碎屑物源来源

    Figure 3.  Illustration of one of the principal motivations behind the development of He-Pb double dating of detrital zircon

    图 4  使用冷却年龄和沉积年龄计算2种不同类型时滞的概念图(改自文献[15])

    a.矿物颗粒“冷却-剥露-侵蚀-搬运-沉积”的轨迹;b.时滞tlagA是高温冷却年龄(如结晶年龄)和低温冷却年龄之差,代表单个矿物颗粒(如碎屑锆石)从深处结晶后冷却剥露至更浅深度的低温封闭温度等温面;c.时滞tlagB是冷却年龄和沉积年龄之差,表示矿物颗粒从有效封闭温度等温面深度剥露至地表,随后经侵蚀在源-汇系统中搬运并临时储存

    Figure 4.  Conceptual diagrams of two different types of lag times to be calculated with combinations of cooling ages and depositional ages

    图 5  流域、陆架、盆底等地貌要素与陆坡长度的比例关系(改自文献[65])

    图中源-汇系统为活动大陆边缘或被动大陆边缘系统。从左至右随着空间规模变大,河流系统在整个系统中所占的比例增大,而陆架与陆坡之比则保持相对稳定。垂直虚线代表地貌单元的边界

    Figure 5.  Geomorphological scaling relationships for catchment, shelf, and basin-floor segments relative to slope length

    图 6  源-汇系统不同构成要素之间的比例关系(改自文献[79])

    Figure 6.  Scaling relationships in modern fluvial systems

    图 7  支点法误差因子和不确定性因素的旋风图(改自文献[87],误差因子是极值与均值的比值)

    Figure 7.  Tornado chart indicates the magnitude of errors and uncertainties in the fulcrum approach

    图 8  地层沉积通量法估算陆坡沉积通量的流程图(改自文献[99])

    P为进积速率;A为沉积速率;公式内T为沉积时间;L为陆坡沉积的总长度;T0为陆坡远端尖灭处的陆坡厚度;图表中T为陆坡厚度;xd为陆坡远端尖灭处的距离;qs为沉积通量;η为陆坡的高度

    Figure 8.  Calculation steps during the sediment flux estimation of the shelf-edge

    图 9  深时源-汇系统定量分析流程图

    Figure 9.  Quantitation steps of the deep-time source-to-sink system

    表  1  深时源-汇系统要素的定量分析方法总结

    Table  1.   Quantitation methods of source-to-sink system parameters in deep time

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  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-15
  • 录用日期:  2022-09-22
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