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陆地地质环境微塑料污染研究现状与展望

朱丽萍 陶雪晴 万愉快 何稼 李明东

朱丽萍, 陶雪晴, 万愉快, 何稼, 李明东. 陆地地质环境微塑料污染研究现状与展望[J]. 地质科技通报, 2023, 42(6): 233-241. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220353
引用本文: 朱丽萍, 陶雪晴, 万愉快, 何稼, 李明东. 陆地地质环境微塑料污染研究现状与展望[J]. 地质科技通报, 2023, 42(6): 233-241. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220353
Zhu Liping, Tao Xueqing, Wan Yukuai, He Jia, Li Mingdong. Microplastic contamination in terrestrial geoenvironments: Review and outlook[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2023, 42(6): 233-241. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220353
Citation: Zhu Liping, Tao Xueqing, Wan Yukuai, He Jia, Li Mingdong. Microplastic contamination in terrestrial geoenvironments: Review and outlook[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2023, 42(6): 233-241. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220353

陆地地质环境微塑料污染研究现状与展望

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220353
基金项目: 

核资源与环境国家重点实验室开放基金项目 2022NRE29

国家自然科学基金项目 52168043

江西省创新领军人才(李明东) 

详细信息
    作者简介:

    朱丽萍(1981—), 女, 实验师, 主要从事环境地质方面的教学与科研工作。E-mail: zlp1123@ecut.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    李明东(1981—), 男, 教授, 主要从事岩土工程方面的教学与科研工作。E-mail: ytlimd@163.com

  • 中图分类号: X52

Microplastic contamination in terrestrial geoenvironments: Review and outlook

  • 摘要:

    陆地地质环境中的微塑料污染日渐广泛和严重, 受到科学界的广泛关注, 但研究尚处于起步阶段。对近5年微塑料研究的国际文献进行了综述, 从来源与组成、迁移和环境影响3个方面进行了梳理和总结, 并提出了下一步研究建议。近期研究发现陆地地质环境中的微塑料主要来源于垃圾填埋场、农业面源污染、污水处理系统和交通运输系统, 不同来源的微塑料存在显著差异, 具有时空变异性。微塑料会随土体人为扰动、土内生物活动在土体内迁移, 还可能渗入地下水并借助渗流迁移, 或悬浮到大气中并借助风力迁移, 颗粒越小越容易迁移。微塑料使土体黏聚力增加、孔隙率降低、孔隙尺度减小、空气循环减少、保水能力提高, 微塑料中强水溶性添加剂的渗出会造成地质体次生污染。微塑料对植物生长、动物消化、微生物活性存在不利影响, 会诱发人类能量和脂质代谢紊乱、氧化应激和呼吸系统疾病。微塑料污染地质体修复仍处于起步阶段, 仅在少量室内试验中发现了微生物降解和生物修复的效果。综上, 微塑料污染广泛存在, 且对生物和人类健康带来诸多不利影响。面向未来, 尚需探明微塑料对陆地生态系统中营养传输的影响、微塑料添加剂在地质体中的迁移和降解规律, 研发更高效便捷的微塑料定量检测方法, 制定全球统一的测试和评价标准, 将微塑料检测列入污染土检测项目, 研发高效的微塑料污染地质体修复方法。

     

  • 图 1  陆地地质环境中微塑料的主要来源和路径

    Figure 1.  Main sources and pathways of microplastics in terrestrial geological environments

    图 2  陆地地质环境中微塑料的迁移示意图

    Figure 2.  Schematic represention of CMTG migrations

    图 3  陆地地质环境中微塑料的环境影响示意图

    Figure 3.  Schematic representation of the environmental impact of CMTG

    表  1  典型陆地地质环境中微塑料的组成情况

    Table  1.   Composition of microplastics in typical terrestrial geological environments

    场地 城市 粒径/μm 平均浓度 主要成分 主要形状
    垃圾填埋场垃圾[7] 中国上海 20~5 000 39 000~85 000粒/kg 聚乙烯 碎片状
    长期覆膜农田[37] 中国京津冀 平均2 950 平均29.3粒/kg 主要成分为聚乙烯,占43.7% 碎片状
    施用固废堆肥的农田[38] 法国巴黎 0.45~5 000 0.16~1.2 kg/(ha-1·a-1) 未测定 颗粒状
    垃圾填埋场渗滤液[35] 中国长三角 100~5 000 0.4~24.6粒/L 聚乙烯和聚丙烯 纤维状和薄膜状,纤维状占60%
    地下水[39] 印度佩鲁古迪遗址 0.45~5 000 7~80粒/L 聚苯乙烯和聚丙烯 未观测
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-14
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-29
  • 修回日期:  2022-08-21

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