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碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床类型及成矿作用研究进展

季浩 李艳军 李一鸣 冷双梁 杨紫文

季浩, 李艳军, 李一鸣, 冷双梁, 杨紫文. 碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床类型及成矿作用研究进展[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 23-38. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220397
引用本文: 季浩, 李艳军, 李一鸣, 冷双梁, 杨紫文. 碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床类型及成矿作用研究进展[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 23-38. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220397
JI Hao, LI Yanjun, LI Yiming, LENG Shuangliang, YANG Ziwen. Research advances on mineralization and types of the alkaline granite-related rare metal and rare earth element deposits[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 23-38. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220397
Citation: JI Hao, LI Yanjun, LI Yiming, LENG Shuangliang, YANG Ziwen. Research advances on mineralization and types of the alkaline granite-related rare metal and rare earth element deposits[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 23-38. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220397

碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床类型及成矿作用研究进展

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220397
基金项目: 

中国地质大学(武汉)中央高校基本科研业务费项目 CUGCJ1817

国家自然科学基金项目 42172084

湖北省地质局项目 KCDZ-2022015

湖北省地质局项目 KJ2022-48

详细信息
    作者简介:

    季浩, E-mail: jihao@cug.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    李艳军, E-mail: liyj@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P618.7;P588.15

Research advances on mineralization and types of the alkaline granite-related rare metal and rare earth element deposits

More Information
  • 摘要:

    碱性花岗岩因富集稀有稀土元素而成为一种重要的成矿岩体。近年来碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床在矿床类型分类、成矿流体和成矿物质来源及成矿机制等方面取得一些重要的研究进展。碱性花岗岩通常富集高场强元素(HFSEs)和稀土元素(REEs),根据暗色矿物与主矿种之间的关系该类型矿床可分为富Nb-Zr-REEs钠(铁)闪石碱性花岗岩型、富Nb-U-HREEs碱性杂岩型和富Nb-Sn黑云母碱性花岗岩型3种类型。碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床成矿时代主要集中于古生代-新生代,与大陆、超大陆的裂解和聚合后期伸展构造背景有关。成矿流体经历了早期岩浆分异与晚期热液交代2个演化阶段。研究表明从岩浆中出溶的成矿流体具有低温、高盐度、富F等特征,可导致HFSEs和REEs等元素在碱性花岗岩中超常富集。母岩浆中不相容元素浓集到出溶流体中,并随着后期含F流体结晶或交代原岩而形成稀有稀土矿物。成矿物质通常来源于地幔岩浆或地幔与地壳的混合,但也可能来源于俯冲洋壳。岩浆结晶分异与热液交代为碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床的2种主要成矿机制,但该类矿床大多为2种机制的复合形成。

     

  • 图 1  全球范围碱性岩形成年代及碱性花岗岩型矿床成矿时代统计图(数据及来源见表 1及文献[28])

    Figure 1.  Diagram of ages for global alkaline rocks and histogram of mineralization ages of alkaline granite-related rare metal mineral deposits

    图 2  碱性花岗岩成矿流体演化过程(据文献[79]修改)

    a.裂谷环境下碱性流体的演化; b.俯冲带伸展背景下碱性流体的演化

    Figure 2.  Evolution of ore-forming fluids associated with alkaline granites

    图 3  部分碱性花岗岩与碱性杂岩εNd(t)、锆石εHf(t)与年龄关系图(数据及来源见文献[2]及表2)

    Figure 3.  εNd(t) and εHf(t) vs. age diagrams of alkaline granite and alkaline complex rocks

    图 4  碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床岩浆热液演化示意图(引自文献[53])

    a.演化早期优先结晶高温弱矿化的镁铁质矿物,稀有稀土元素等保护在熔体中;b.岩浆演化晚期稀有稀土矿物在间隙大量结晶,并出现大量热液钠长石化

    Figure 4.  Sketch showing the magmatic hydrothermal evolution in alkaline granite-related rare metal and rare earth element deposits

    图 5  岩浆-热液-变质锆石的演化过程与稀有稀土矿物形成过程(据文献修改[36])

    Figure 5.  Evolution of magmatic-hydrothermal-metamorphic zircon and the formation process of REE and HFSE mineral

    表  1  我国典型碱性花岗岩型稀有稀土矿床成岩成矿年龄统计

    Table  1.   Statistics of magmatism and mineralization ages of alkaline granite-related rare metal mineral deposits in China

    产地 成矿年龄/Ma 成矿岩体 矿石 成矿元素 测试方法 资料来源
    巴尔哲 124±1 钠闪石碱性花岗岩 锆石、氟碳铈矿、兴安石、独居石、烧绿石 Nb, Zr, REEs LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[50]
    波孜果尔 290±1 黑云母花岗岩、石英碱长正长岩 烧绿石、锆石、氟碳铈矿、独居石、磷灰石 Nb, Ta, Zr, U, Th, LREE LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[53]
    交通社 453±3 碱长花岗岩 烧绿石、铌铁矿、钛铁矿 Nb, Ta, REEs LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[54]
    杨庄 313±2 花岗斑岩 烧绿石 Nb, Ta LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[11]
    余石山 829.4±2.7 变粒岩、正长岩 金红石 Nb, Ta, Rb LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[55]
    巴什苏洪 277±2 碱长花岗岩、辉长岩 独居石、铌钽铁矿 Nb, Ta, REEs SHIRMP锆石U-Pb 文献[56]
    于沟子 210±1 钾长花岗岩、二长花岗岩 烧绿石、褐帘石 Nb, Rb, Zr LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[57]
    方城 854±8,445±8 正长花岗岩、石英正长岩、黑云母正长岩、霓辉正长岩 榍石、烧绿石、铌钛铁矿、黑稀金矿 Nb, Ta LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[51, 58]
    大巴山 241~240 粗面岩 铌铁矿、锆石 Nb, REEs LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[59]
    赛马 224~193 霓霞正长岩、异霞正长岩 异性石、层硅铈钛矿 U, Th, REEs LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[60]
    赵井沟 126±1,127±2 碱长花岗岩、伟晶岩 锆石、铌铁矿 Nb, Ta, Zr SIMS锆石U-Pb 文献[61]
    茨达 240.5±0.76 碱长石英正长岩、碱性花岗岩 褐钇铌矿、榍石 REEs, Nb, Ta LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 文献[62]
    黄山 129±1.4 黑云母二长花岗岩 铌铁矿、铌铁金红石 Nb, Ta LA-ICP-MS独居石U-Pb 文献[63]
    大坪 182±3 正长花岗岩 铌铁矿、钽铁矿 Nb, Ta LA-ICP-MS铌铁矿-钽铁矿U-Pb 文献[49]
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