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典型喀斯特白云岩小流域土壤-表层岩溶带厚度空间异质性特征

王发 聂云鹏 陈洪松 付智勇 连晋姣

王发, 聂云鹏, 陈洪松, 付智勇, 连晋姣. 典型喀斯特白云岩小流域土壤-表层岩溶带厚度空间异质性特征[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 306-314. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220399
引用本文: 王发, 聂云鹏, 陈洪松, 付智勇, 连晋姣. 典型喀斯特白云岩小流域土壤-表层岩溶带厚度空间异质性特征[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 306-314. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220399
WANG Fa, NIE Yunpeng, CHEN Hongsong, FU Zhiyong, LIAN Jinjiao. Spatial heterogeneity characteristics of soil-epikarst thickness in a typical karst dolomite small watershed[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 306-314. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220399
Citation: WANG Fa, NIE Yunpeng, CHEN Hongsong, FU Zhiyong, LIAN Jinjiao. Spatial heterogeneity characteristics of soil-epikarst thickness in a typical karst dolomite small watershed[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 306-314. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220399

典型喀斯特白云岩小流域土壤-表层岩溶带厚度空间异质性特征

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220399
基金项目: 

广西自然科学基金创新研究团队项目 2018GXNSFGA281003

国家自然科学基金项目 41971048

国家自然科学基金项目 42077077

中国博士后科学基金项目 2022M713349

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王发, E-mail: wangfa110@126.com

    通讯作者:

    连晋姣, E-mail: lianjinjiao@isa.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P642.25

Spatial heterogeneity characteristics of soil-epikarst thickness in a typical karst dolomite small watershed

More Information
  • 摘要:

    土壤-表层岩溶带厚度是喀斯特地球关键带的关键指标,明确其空间异质性特征对于理解地球关键带结构演化机理以及评估水源涵养功能具有重要意义。在广西环江木连小流域1.4 km2范围内,通过高密度电法(ERT)探测45条样线,共获取1 731个样点的土壤-表层岩溶带厚度及环境因子数据资料,研究了土壤和表层岩溶带厚度的空间分布格局及其影响因素。结果表明,土壤和表层岩溶带厚度平均值分别为1.15 m和6.44 m,且分别呈现强变异程度和中等变异程度。地统计分析结果表明球状模型和指数模型分别可以反映土壤和表层岩溶带的空间结构特征。土壤厚度呈现中等空间自相关性,变程长,空间连续性好;而表层岩溶带呈现强烈的空间自相关性,变程短,空间依赖性强。土壤厚度受到环境因子(地形湿度指数、垂直曲率、曲率、坡向、坡度、高程、覆盖度、出露基岩率和植被归一化指数)的多重影响,而表层岩溶带厚度受部分环境因子影响的同时,与土壤厚度和植被类型的相关性更高。研究结果有助于喀斯特区土壤-表层岩溶带演化机理认识,并为土壤-表层岩溶带厚度的空间预测提供科学依据。

     

  • 图 1  研究区水文地质概况

    Figure 1.  Hydrogeology of the study area

    图 2  研究区内采样点布设

    Figure 2.  Sampling points and lines in the study area

    图 3  研究区土壤-表层岩溶带厚度空间分布图

    Figure 3.  Distribution of soil and epikarst thickness in the study area

    图 4  不同植被类型下的土壤-表层岩溶带厚度

    注:差异显著性检验方法为最小显著性差异法(least significant difference, 简称LSD);A,B表示不同植被类型下的土壤厚度差异;a, b, c表示不同植被类型下的表层岩溶带厚度差异

    Figure 4.  Soil-epikarst thickness under different land cover types

    图 5  土壤-表层岩溶带厚度的相互关系

    Figure 5.  Relationship between soil and epikarst thickness

    表  1  基岩化学成分组成

    Table  1.   Chemical composition of bedrock

    样点 灼烧减量 SiO2 Al2O3 TFe2O3 CaO MgO K2O Na2O TiO2 P2O5 MnO
    wB/%
    东南坡 46.57 0.67 0.16 0.09 30.91 21.54 0.009 8 0.03 0.02 0.008 3 0.003 2
    洼地 46.59 0.48 0.32 0.06 31.15 21.54 0.006 9 0.02 0.06 0.006 5 0.004 7
    西北坡 46.49 0.36 0.26 0.04 32.19 20.45 0.005 3 0.03 0.03 0.006 6 0.002 7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  土壤和表层岩溶带厚度的描述性统计

    Table  2.   Descriptive analysis and normal distribution test of the epikarst thickness

    样本数 最小值/m 最大值/m 平均值/m 标准差 变异系数 偏度 峰度
    土壤厚度 1 731 0 6.4 1.15 1.3 1.13 1.04 0.36
    表层岩溶带厚度 1 731 0.5 26.8 6.44 4.37 0.68 1.36 2.33
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  土壤和表层岩溶带厚度的半变异函数模型及其参数

    Table  3.   Types and parameters of the semivariogram model for the soil-epikarst thickness

    模型 块金值C0 基台值C0+C 块金值/基台值C0/(C0+C) 变程/m 决定系数R2
    土壤厚度 球状模型 0.8 1.77 0.45 201 0.877
    表层岩溶带厚度 指数模型 4.8 20.32 0.24 153 0.725
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  土壤-表层岩溶带厚度与地形-环境因子的相关系数

    Table  4.   Correlation coefficients between soil-epikarst thickness and terrain-environmental factors

    地形湿度指数 垂向曲率 平面曲率 曲率 坡向 坡度 高程 覆盖度 出露基岩率 植被归一化指数
    土壤厚度 0.149** -0.080** 0.052 -0.070** -0.087** -0.281** -0.320** -0.206** -0.377** -0.082**
    表层岩溶带厚度 0.163** -0.014 0.034 -0.031 0.010 -0.151** -0.220** -0.255** -0.301** -0.275**
    注:**表示在0.01水平上显著相关
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  土壤和表层岩溶带厚度回归方程参数

    Table  5.   Parameters of the regression equations of the soil-epikarst thickness

    常数 地形湿度指数 垂向曲率 曲率 坡向 坡度 高程 覆盖度 出露基岩率 植被归一化指数 R2 P
    土壤厚度 4.023 -0.004 0.334 -0.125 0.001 -0.029 -0.003 -0.009 -0.037 -0.219 0.215 <0.001
    表层岩溶带厚度 22.33 0.118 -0.006 -0.017 -0.043 -0.089 -13.63 0.177 <0.001
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  基于植被类型和土壤厚度划分的土表层岩溶带厚度回归方程参数

    Table  6.   Parameters of the regression equations of the epikarst thickness based on soil thickness and land cover

    常数 地形湿度指数 坡度 高程 覆盖度 出露基岩率 植被归一化指数 土壤厚度 虚拟参数 R2 P
    D1 D2 D3
    表层岩溶 11.932 0.063 0.001 -0.004 -0.021 -0.082 -2.503 -0.398 -1.569 2.666 0.232 <0.001
    带厚度 10.558 0.075 0.011 -0.002 -0.020 -0.063 -3.800 0.571 -0.340 -1.395 2.263 0.253 <0.001
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-24
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-30
  • 修回日期:  2022-08-24

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