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全球钴矿资源时空分布及成因类型

付浩 王加昇 李金龙 王博 叶彬 李梦玲

付浩, 王加昇, 李金龙, 王博, 叶彬, 李梦玲. 全球钴矿资源时空分布及成因类型[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 1-22. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220431
引用本文: 付浩, 王加昇, 李金龙, 王博, 叶彬, 李梦玲. 全球钴矿资源时空分布及成因类型[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 1-22. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220431
FU Hao, WANG Jiasheng, LI Jinlong, WANG Bo, YE Bin, LI Mengling. Spatiotemporal distribution and genesis types of global cobalt resources[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 1-22. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220431
Citation: FU Hao, WANG Jiasheng, LI Jinlong, WANG Bo, YE Bin, LI Mengling. Spatiotemporal distribution and genesis types of global cobalt resources[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 1-22. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220431

全球钴矿资源时空分布及成因类型

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220431
基金项目: 

云南省科技计划项目 202202AG050006

自然资源部三江成矿作用及资源勘查利用重点实验室开放基金 ZRZYBSJSYS2021002

云南省"万人计划青年拔尖人才"专项 云人设通[2020]150号

详细信息
    作者简介:

    付浩, E-mail: fuhao1202@sina.cn

    通讯作者:

    王加昇, E-mail: jiashengwang@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P617;P618.62

Spatiotemporal distribution and genesis types of global cobalt resources

More Information
  • 摘要:

    钴是重要的战略性矿产资源,在航空航天、电动车电池制造等工业领域具有不可替代的作用。钴矿是我国紧缺的矿种之一,可被工业利用的钴资源主要集中在全球少数几个国家,我国钴矿资源严重依赖进口。因此,加强钴矿资源研究,降低被"卡脖子"风险,事关我国经济可持续发展大计。系统综述了钴的地球化学性质和矿物类型,对钴矿床的类型及形成机制进行了细致总结,对全球和我国钴矿床的时空分布规律进行了全面梳理,此外,还对钴矿床研究中存在的问题进行了深入分析,并对钴矿床成矿时代及其动力学背景、钴的来源、钴元素迁移富集机制和钴的赋存状态等未来研究方向进行了展望,旨在为我国钴矿床的研究提供参考,同时也为国内钴矿资源的勘探开发提供新的思路。

     

  • 图 1  钴矿资源储量(数据来自文献[7-8])

    Figure 1.  Cobalt ore resource reserves

    图 2  全球主要钴矿床分布图(1.矿床序号与表 2中矿床序号对应;2.富钴的海底Fe-Mn结核(结壳), 数据来自于文献[56])

    Figure 2.  Distribution map of major cobalt deposits in the world

    表  1  主要钴矿物[22-24]

    Table  1.   Major cobalt minerals

    矿物种类 矿物名称 化学式 wB/% 颜色
    砷化物 砷钴矿 CoAs2 15~24 锡白色、钢灰色
    斜方砷钴矿 (Co, Fe, Ni)As2 13~23 锡白色、铅灰色
    硫化物 硫钴矿 Co3S4 57.95 亮灰色
    硫铜钴矿 CuCo2S4 28.56 钢灰色
    硫镍钴矿 (Co, Ni)3S4 29.00 亮钢灰色
    钴黄铁矿 (Fe, Co) S2 33.00 浅黄色
    方硫钴矿 CoS2 47.89 粉红色,灰色
    方硫镍钴矿 (Co, Ni)3S4 4~10 亮钢灰色
    钴镍黄铁矿 Co9S8 67.40 铜黄色
    硫锑钴镍矿 (Co, Ni)SbS 20.78 灰色
    硫砷化物 辉钴矿 CoAsS 35.52 锡白色、铝灰色
    铁硫砷钴矿 (Co, Fe)AsS 26.76 锡白色
    钴毒砂 (Fe, Co)AsS 3~10 灰黑色
    表生矿物 钴华 Co3(AsO)4·8H2O 29.53 粉红色、鲜红色
    钴土矿 (Ni, Co)2-xMn(O, OH)4·nH2O 1~25 褐色、黑色
    水钴矿 Co2O3·H2O 64.10 淡蓝色、淡紫色
    菱钴矿 CoCO3 49.55 玫瑰红
    钴孔雀石 (Cu, Co)2(CO3)(OH)2 17.84 绿色、黑棕色
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  世界主要钴矿床

    Table  2.   Major cobalt deposits in the world

    矿床名称 国家 赋存形式 钴金属量/万t 规模 Co品位/% 矿体形态 含钴矿物 围岩蚀变 成矿年代 资料来源
    岩浆岩型含(富) Co硫化物矿床 (1)Voisey′s Bay 加拿大 伴生 12.3 大型 0.12 层状、似层状、透镜状、脉状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿、钴镍黄铁矿 硅化、黑云母化、闪长岩化、碳酸盐化 1334 Ma中元古代 文献[39]
    (2)Kambalda 澳大利亚 伴生 大型 0.21 盆状、漏斗状、脉状 含钴镍黄铁矿、含钴黄铁矿 硅化、黑云母化 2 700 Ma古元古代-新太古代 文献[92]
    (3)Noril′sk-Talnakh 俄罗斯 伴生 79 大型 0.06 盆状、漏斗状、脉状 含钴镍黄铁矿、含钴黄铁矿 硅化、碳酸盐化、闪长岩化 347~226 Ma 文献[38, 93]
    (4)Sudbury 加拿大 伴生 100.6 大型 0.1 层状、透镜状 方硫镍钴矿、含钴砷镍矿 闪长岩化 文献[25, 94]
    (5)金川 中国 伴生 9.8 大型 0.07~0.2 似层状、透镜状 镍辉砷钴矿、铁镍辉钴矿、斜方辉砷钴矿、辉钴矿、含钴辉砷镍矿 黏土化、绿泥石化、蛇纹石化 (1 508±31) Ma 文献[46, 95]
    (6)Outokumpu 芬兰 7.3 大型 0.25 文献[40]
    (7)Dumont 加拿大 12.61 大型 0.011 文献[96]
    (8)Eagle 美国 0.08 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿、钴镍黄铁矿 文献[56]
    (9)Raglan 加拿大 0.06 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿、钴镍黄铁矿 文献[56]
    热液型含(富) Co多金属矿床 (10)BouAzzer 摩洛哥 伴生 8.5 大型 1~2.5 脉状、巢状、柱状、透镜状 方钴矿、砷钴矿、斜方砷钴矿 碳酸盐化、蛇纹石化、硅化、绿泥石化 泥盆纪-石炭纪 文献[47]
    (11)Olympic Dam 澳大利亚 伴生 12.1 大型 0.02 层状、透镜状、脉状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴针铁矿 硅化、绢云母化、绿泥石化 中元古代 文献[48]
    (12)Windy Craggy 加拿大 伴生 20.5 大型 0.069 层状、似层状、脉状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 绿泥石化、钠长石化、硅化 文献[2]
    (13)Sibaiskoye 俄罗斯 伴生 13 大型 0.13 板状、透镜状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 硅化、绢云母化、碳酸盐化、绿泥石化 文献[97]
    (14)Magnitogorsk 俄罗斯 伴生 9 大型 0.018 层状、透镜状、脉状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 硅化、碳酸盐化 元古代 文献[98]
    沉积岩-变沉积岩容矿型Cu-Co矿床 (15)Blackbird 美国 伴生 12.3 大型 0.73 层状、似层状 钴铁矿、含钴毒砂、含钴黄铁矿 黑云母化、硅化、绿泥石化 (1 132±240)Ma中元古代 文献[60]
    (16)Kamoto 刚果 伴生 36.2 大型 0.39 层状、似层状 含钴黄铁矿、硫铜钴矿 碳酸盐化、硅化 (762±33)Ma早古生代-新元古代 文献[99, 57]
    (17)Chambishi 赞比亚 伴生 15 大型 0.10 层状、似层状 硫铜钴矿、含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 绢云母化、绿泥石化、硅化、碳酸盐化 (504.8±2.2)Ma早古生代 文献[58-59]
    (18)Tenke-Fungurume 刚果 伴生 31 大型 0.1~1 层状、透镜状 硫铜钴矿、水钴矿、含钴孔雀石 硅化、碳酸盐化 新元古代 文献[24, 100]
    (19)Luishia 刚果 伴生 大型 0.20 层状、似层状、透镜状 硫铜钴矿、含钴黄铁矿、水钴矿 硅化、碳酸盐化、绿泥石化 (742±32)Ma新元古代 文献[101]
    (20)Luiswishi 刚果 伴生 大型 0.46 层状、似层状 硫铜钴矿 硅化、碳酸盐化、白云岩化 新元古代 文献[102]
    (21)Kamoya 刚果 伴生 5 大型 0.30 层状、似层状、透镜状 硫铜钴矿、碲硫镍钴矿 硅化、碳酸盐化、白云岩化、绿泥石化 880~735 Ma新元古代 文献[103]
    (22)Kansuki 刚果 共生 6 大型 0.75 层状、似层状、透镜状 水钴矿、菱钴矿 滑石化、绢云母化、赤铁矿化、高岭石化、硅化 880~750 Ma新元古代 文献[70, 103]
    (23)Kolwezi 刚果 伴生 小型 0.2 层状、似层状 硫铜钴矿、水钴矿、水钴铜矿、钴白云石、钴华 硅化、碳酸盐化、白云岩化 新元古代 文献[73]
    (24)Talvivaara 芬兰 伴生 31 大型 0.02 层状、似层状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 硅化、滑石化、碳酸盐化、蛇纹石化 元古代 文献[67, 104]
    (25)Kimpe 刚果 伴生 3 大型 0.123 板状、脉状 硫钴矿、硫铜钴矿、水钴矿 硅化、白云石化、绢云母化、绿泥石化 880~550 Ma新元古代 文献[105]
    (26)Sicomines 刚果 伴生 61.6 大型 0.22 层状、似层状 硫铜钴矿、水钴矿、含钴黄铁矿 有硅化、白云岩化、绢云母化、碳酸盐化、滑石化 新元古代 文献[63]
    风化型红土Ni-Co矿床 (27)Goro 新喀里多尼亚 伴生 39 大型 0.12 层状、似层状 水钻矿、钴土矿 中新世 文献[106, 108]
    (28)Nkamouna 喀麦隆 伴生 86 大型 0.25 层状、似层状 钴红土、含钴针铁矿 文献[77]
    (29)Moa Bay 古巴 伴生 52 大型 0.01~0.15 镍钴钡镁锰矿 文献[24]
    (30)Jacaré 巴西 伴生 64 大型 0.13 钴土矿 文献[56]
    (31)Sunrise 澳大利亚 13.56 大型 0.09 文献[96]
    (32)Murrin 澳大利亚 35 大型 0.076 文献[96]
    (33)Ambatovy Joint Venture 马达加斯加 12.16 大型 0.08 文献[96]
    注:大型>20 000 t,中型[2 000, 20 000] t,小型<2 000 t[27]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  中国主要钴矿床

    Table  3.   Major cobalt deposits in China

    矿床名称 赋存形式 钴金属量/万t 规模 Co品位/% 矿体形态 含钴矿物 围岩蚀变 成矿年代 资料来源
    岩浆岩型含(富) Co硫化物矿床 (1)甘肃金川Ni-Cu-Co矿 伴生 9.8 大型 0.07~0.2 似层状、透镜状 镍辉砷钴矿、铁镍辉钴矿、斜方辉砷钴矿、辉钴矿、含钴辉砷镍矿 黏土化、绿泥石化、蛇纹石化 (1 508±31)Ma元古代 文献[46, 95]
    (2)云南白马寨Ni-Cu-(-PGE-Co)矿 伴生 0.3 中型 0.07 层状、似层状 镍辉砷钴矿 次闪石化、绿泥石化、滑石化 260 Ma二叠纪-三叠纪 文献[46]
    (3)新疆图拉尔根Ni-Cu-Co矿 伴生 0.51 中型 0.03 板状、透镜状 含钴磁黄铁矿、镍辉砷钴矿、钴辉砷镍矿 蛇纹石化、滑石化、透闪石化 (280±4)Ma晚石炭世-早二叠世 文献[109-110]
    (4)新疆黄山西Ni-Cu-Co矿 伴生 1~2 中型 0.04 层状、似层状、透镜状 钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 蛇纹石化、绿泥石化、碳酸岩化 晚石炭世-早二叠世 文献[45]
    (5)新疆黄山Ni-Cu-Co矿 伴生 大型 0.026 层状、似层状、透镜状 钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 蛇纹石化、绿泥石化、碳酸岩化 晚石炭世-早二叠世 文献[111-112]
    (6)内蒙古嘎仙Ni-Co矿 伴生 2.6 大型 0.06 层状、似层状、透镜状 钴镍黄铁矿、含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 透闪石化、蛇纹石化、绿泥石化、碳酸盐化 白垩纪 文献[113]
    (7)新疆黄山东Ni-Cu-Co矿 伴生 1.4 中型 0.024 层状、似层状、透镜状 钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿 蛇纹石化、绿泥石化、碳酸岩化 (288±5)Ma晚石炭世-早二叠世 文献[111, 114]
    (8)吉林红旗岭Ni-Cu-Co矿 伴生 0.31 中型 0.04 层状、似层状 含钴磁黄铁矿 次闪石化、绢云母化、滑石化 海西期-印支期 文献[45]
    (9)新疆葫芦Cu-Ni(-Co)矿 伴生 0.51 中型 0.03 层状、似层状、透镜状 含钴磁黄铁矿 蛇纹石化、碳酸岩化 274.5 Ma晚石炭世-早二叠世 文献[111, 115]
    (10)陕西煎茶岭Ni(-Co)矿 伴生 1 中型 0.026 透镜状、层状 含钴镍黄铁矿 蛇纹石化 元古代 文献[116-117]
    (11)青海夏日哈木Ni-Cu(-Co)矿 伴生 4.03 大型 0.028 透镜状、似层状 含钴辉砷镍矿、钴镍黄铁矿 蛇纹石化、绿泥石化、阳起石化 (406.1±2.7)Ma晚泥盆世-早石炭世 文献[43, 118]
    (12)四川攀枝花V-Ti-Fe(-Co)矿 伴生 2 中型 0.01~0.02 层状、似层状、透镜状 含钴磁黄铁矿、含钴黄铁矿 次闪石化、绿泥石化、蛇纹石化 晚古生代 文献[45]
    (13)新疆喀拉通克Cu-Ni(-Co)矿 伴生 透镜状、囊状、脉状 含钴黄铁矿 绿泥石化、绿帘石化、滑石化、硅化 (282±20)Ma二叠纪 文献[46, 119]
    热液型含(富) Co多金属矿床 (14)青海德尔尼Cu-Co-Zn矿 共生 2.8 大型 0.1 透镜状、似层状 钴镍黄铁矿 蛇纹石化、碳酸盐化、硅化 海西期-印支期 文献[26, 45]
    (15)青海肯德克可Co-Bi-Au矿 共生 1.54 中型 0.064~0.46 层状、似层状 方钴矿、辉钴矿 矽卡岩化、硅化 早古生代 文献[91]
    (16)青海骆驼沟Co(Au) 独立 2 中型 0.06 似层状、透镜状 含钴黄铁矿、硫钴矿、硫铜钴矿 硅化、碳酸盐化 (429±29)Ma志留纪-泥盆纪 文献[97, 120-122]
    (17)新疆磁海Fe(Co)矿 伴生 1 中型 0.01~0.1 似层状、脉状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿、斜方砷钴矿、辉钴矿 钠长石化、黄铁石化、透辉石化 (281.9±2.2)Ma二叠纪-三叠纪 文献[123]
    (18)新疆阔尔真阔腊Au(-Co)矿 伴生 0.007~0.12 层状、透镜体状 含钴黄铁矿 硅化、碳酸岩化、绢云母化 海西期 文献[124]
    (19)湖北大冶铜绿山Fe-Cu(-Co)矿 伴生 似层状、透镜状 硫铜钴矿、含钴黄铁矿、辉钴矿、铁硫砷钴矿 矽卡岩化 燕山期 文献[125]
    (20)山西中条山胡-蓖型Cu-Co矿 伴生 0.53 中型 0.024 层状、似层状、透镜状 含钴黄铁矿、辉钴矿、钴铁矿 硅化、碳酸盐化 (1 844±25)Ma古元古代 文献[122]
    (21)云南新平大红山Fe-Cu-Co矿 伴生 0.27 中型 层状、似层状、透镜状 辉钴矿、硫钴矿、硫砷钴矿 硅化、碳酸盐化 文献[27]
    (22)江西五宝山Pb-Zn-Co矿床 独立 0.24 中型 0.024~1.15 似层状、透镜状 辉钴矿、钴毒砂、含钴黄铁矿、辉钴矿 硅化、绿泥石化 中生代 文献[126-127]
    (23)江西七宝山Pb-Zn-Co矿床 独立 0.2 小型 0.024~1.15 层状、似层状 含钴黄铁矿、辉钴矿 硅化 中生代 文献[128]
    (24)湖南普乐-横洞Co矿 独立 1.24 中型 0.04 层状、似层状 含钴黄铁矿、辉钴矿 硅化 125 Ma中生代 文献[129-130]
    (25)海南石碌Fe-Co-Cu矿 共生 1.18 中型 0.29 层状、似层状、透镜体状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴磁黄铁矿、辉钴矿 镁质矽卡岩化 330~240 Ma石炭纪-三叠纪 文献[52-53]
    (26)西藏玉龙Cu-Mo(-Co)矿 伴生 0.023 层状、似层状、透镜体状 含钴锰的水合氧化物、钴华、含钴黄铁矿 硅化、绿泥石化、绢云母化 40~35 Ma渐新世-始新世 文献[131-132]
    (27)西藏普桑果Cu-Pb-Zn-Co-Ni矿 伴生 0.025 小型 0.029 透镜状、脉状 辉砷钴镍矿 矽卡岩化、硅化、绿泥石化、碳酸盐化 喜山期 文献[50-51]
    (28)青海督冷沟Cu-Co矿 伴生 中型 0.02~1.31 脉状、透镜状、似层状 铁硫砷钴矿、铁硫砷镍钴矿、钴黄铁矿、钴镍黄铁矿、辉钴矿、硫钴镍矿 绢云母化、碳酸盐化、硅化 晚古生代 文献[133]
    (29)湖南井冲Cu-Co矿 共生 0.37 中型 0.027 层状、透镜状、脉状 含钴黄铁矿、钴铁矿 硅化、绿泥石化 晚侏罗世-白垩世 文献[134]
    (30)四川拉拉Cu-Co-Au矿 伴生 1.74 大型 0.022 似层状、透镜状 含钴黄铁矿、辉钴矿、硫钴镍矿、方硫镍钴矿 黄铜矿化、黄铁矿化、磁铁矿化、硅化、钠长石化 古元古代 文献[135]
    (31)云南易门老厂Cu-Co矿 伴生 中型 0.11 层状、似层状、脉状 辉钴矿、镍辉砷钴矿、含钴毒砂、杂水钴矿 硅化、白云岩化 元古代 文献[136]
    (32)甘肃康县阳坝Au-Cu-Co矿 伴生 0.01~0.04 似层状、扁豆状 含钴黄铁矿 硅化、绢云母化、黄铁矿化 文献[137]
    (33)新疆蕴都卡拉Au-Cu-Co矿 伴生 0.011 脉状、似层状、不规则状 辉钴矿、方钴矿 黄铜矿化、黄铁矿化、碳酸盐化、硅化、蛇纹石化、绿泥石化 文献[138]
    (34)云南兰坪白秧坪Cu(-Co) 矿 伴生 0.15 小型 0.025~0.094 似层状、脉状 辉钴矿、钴华、含钴黄铁矿、含钴砷黝铜矿 硅化、碳酸盐化、黄铁矿化 61.13 Ma古新世 文献[139]
    (35)内蒙古阿右旗卡休他他Fe-(-Au-Co)矿 伴生 0.22 中型 0.010 透镜状、囊状 斜方砷钴矿、辉钴矿、含镍辉钴矿、钴毒砂 矽卡岩化、硅化 文献[140]
    (36)新疆卡拉塔什含Cu砂页岩 伴生 小型 0.015 透镜状 含钴铜砂页岩、含钴辉铜矿 白云石化、硅化 元古代 文献[141]
    沉积岩-变沉积岩容矿型Cu-Co矿床 (37)云南永平水泄-厂街Cu-Co矿 共生 0.29 中型 0.03~0.1 脉状、透镜状、囊状 含钴黄铁矿、镍辉砷钴矿、含钴毒砂、辉钴矿 硅化、黄铁矿化、菱铁矿化、重晶石化 文献[142]
    (38)吉林大横路Cu-Co矿 共生 5 大型 0.035~0.80 层状、似层状、分枝复合状 硫镍钴矿、辉钴矿、方钴矿、含钴黄铁矿 硅化、绢云母化、钠长石化、碳酸盐化、黄铁矿化 古元古代 文献[143]
    (39)辽宁营口周家Cu-Co矿 共生 0.2 中型 0.013~0.042 呈层状、似层状、扁豆状、透镜体状 含钴黄铁矿、硫钴矿、铜硫钴矿 硅化、绢云母化、绿泥石化、碳酸盐化 早元古代 文献[144-145]
    (40)辽宁营口上华Cu-Co矿 共生 中型 0.013~0.042 似层状、扁豆状 含钴黄铁矿、硫钴矿、铜硫钴矿 硅化、绢云母化、绿泥石化、碳酸盐化 早元古代 文献[144-145]
    (41)广西金秀罗丹Cu-Co矿 独立 小型 0.034~0.048 透镜状、串珠状 辉钴矿 硅化、绿泥石化、白云母化 文献[146]
    风化型红土Ni-Co矿床 (42)云南元江-墨江Ni-Co矿 伴生 0.4 中型 0.03~0.04 层状、似层状 钴土矿 文献[27, 45]
    (43)海南文昌蓬莱钴土矿 伴生 0.89 中型 0.03 层状、似层状 钴土矿 文献[27, 45]
    (44)安定居丁钴土矿 伴生 1.4 中型 1.63 层状、似层状 钴土矿 文献[27, 45]
    (45)四川会理含钴蛇纹岩带 伴生 0.19 小型 0.01~0.02 层状、似层状 含钴的镍磁铁矿 蛇纹石化 文献[147]
    (46)贵州猫场杨家洞含钴铝土矿 伴生 小型 层状、似层状、透镜状 含钴黄铁矿 黏土化 文献[148]
    (47)贵州云峰含钴铝土矿 伴生 小型 0.021~0.038 似层状、透镜状 含钴黄铁矿、含钴的砷黄铁矿 黏土化 三叠纪 文献[149]
    注:大型>20 000 t,中型[2 000, 20 000] t,小型<2 000 t[27]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-07
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