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露天矿山生态修复中的土壤重构试验

梁世伟 许领 胡而已

梁世伟, 许领, 胡而已. 露天矿山生态修复中的土壤重构试验[J]. 地质科技通报, 2023, 42(6): 242-248. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220459
引用本文: 梁世伟, 许领, 胡而已. 露天矿山生态修复中的土壤重构试验[J]. 地质科技通报, 2023, 42(6): 242-248. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220459
Liang Shiwei, Xu Ling, Hu Eryi. Field model tests of soil reconstruction in ecological restoration of open-pit mines[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2023, 42(6): 242-248. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220459
Citation: Liang Shiwei, Xu Ling, Hu Eryi. Field model tests of soil reconstruction in ecological restoration of open-pit mines[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2023, 42(6): 242-248. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220459

露天矿山生态修复中的土壤重构试验

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220459
详细信息
    作者简介:

    梁世伟(1987—), 男, 讲师, 主要从事矿山工程地质环境治理与国土空间生态修复的教学和科研工作。E-mail: 176032237@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    许领(1982—), 男, 教授, 主要从事黄土灾变机理、监测、预警与防控理论及工程地质环境治理与国土空间生态修复的教学和科研工作。E-mail: xuling82@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: X171.4

Field model tests of soil reconstruction in ecological restoration of open-pit mines

  • 摘要:

    针对甘肃临洮县张家沟石灰岩矿Ⅳ矿区的地质环境破坏问题, 采用喷播复绿工艺对试验矿区进行了生态恢复治理。结合在露天矿试验区和实验室同时选择6种不同配比生态土(客土+有机营养土+土壤改良材料复合肥及其他)进行了种植, 分析了在不同湿度下4种草本植物和2种灌木不同混合比例的生长特征。试验结果表明: 不同配比的生态土影响植物生长过程, 其中在6种不同配比生态土中, 生态土配比为客土(40%)+有机营养土(36%)+土壤改良材料(20%)+复合肥及其他(4%)+草籽(草本、灌木)的环境状态下的植被生长更趋于稳定; 在湿度为17%~ 30%的环境条件下, 草本植物与灌木比例为40∶1的植被生长更趋于稳定, 而在湿度为30%~ 44%的环境条件下, 草本植物与灌木比例为20∶1的植被生长更趋于稳定。研究结果揭示了在不同生态土配比下植被的生长规律特征, 可为露天矿山的生态修复治理提供参考。

     

  • 图 1  矿区位置(a)及矿区周边地形地貌(b)

    Figure 1.  Location of the mining area (a) and topography around the mining area (b)

    图 2  试验田的划分情况

    a.草籽的选取; b.试验田区域划分; c.试验田撒草籽

    Figure 2.  Division of the experimental field

    图 3  试验盒的植物生长对比分析

    Figure 3.  Comparative analysis of plant growth in the experimental box

    图 4  试验田的植被生长变化

    Figure 4.  Changes in plant community in the experimental field

    图 5  不同湿度条件下试验田灌木与草本植物混合生长变化

    Figure 5.  Changes in the mixed growth of shrubs and herbs in the experimental field under different humidity conditions

    图 6  矿区修复实际效果

    Figure 6.  Practical effect of mining area restoration

    表  1  6个不同生态土配比类型的试验盒详细配比

    Table  1.   Statistics on the detailed ratio of 6 experiment boxes with different ecological soil ratio typeswB/%

    生态土配料 试验盒编号
    1 2 3 4 5 6
    客土 100 50 45 50 50 40
    有机营养土 0 50 35 48 30 36
    土壤改良材料 0 0 20 0 18 20
    多含量复合肥 0 0 0 1.4 1.4 2.8
    保水剂 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 1.0
    团粒剂 0 0 0 0.05 0.05 0.1
    微生物菌剂 0 0 0 0.05 0.05 0.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  三易矿山现场进行模型试验田的划分情况

    Table  2.   Division of the model test field at the Sanyi mine site

    试验田编号 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
    ①自然不浇水 ①-1 ①-2 ①-3 ①-4 ①-5 ①-6 ①-7 ①-8
    ②17%~30%湿度 ②-1 ②-2 ②-3 ②-4 ②-5 ②-6 ②-7 ②-8
    ③30%~44%湿度 ③-1 ③-2 ③-3 ③-4 ③-5 ③-6 ③-7 ③-8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  6个试验盒中草本植物生长的平均高度与种群密度

    Table  3.   Mean height and population density of herbaceous plants in six boxes

    试验盒编号 平均高度/cm 种群密度/(个·m-2)
    1 18.1 418
    2 21.5 442
    3 27.3 635
    4 32.4 521
    5 38.2 766
    6 43.5 897
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同湿度条件下试验田植物生长80 d平均高度和种群密度

    Table  4.   Mean height and population density of plants in the experimental field during 80 days of growth under different humidity conditions

    试验田编号 自然不浇水 17%~30%湿度 30%~44%湿度
    高度/cm 种群密度/(个·m-2) 高度/cm 种群密度/(个·m-2) 高度/cm 种群密度/(个·m-2)
    1 20.1 348 26.4 445 31.5 423
    2 22.7 364 31.7 463 35.9 483
    3 27.5 478 39.3 673 41.2 653
    4 32.1 432 44.6 568 47.1 575
    5 34.8 584 50.2 766 53.6 821
    6 37.4 642 53.6 865 56.9 884
    7 41.3 725 69.2 975 67.7 906
    8 44.6 746 63.7 924 69.8 948
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-29
  • 录用日期:  2022-10-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-09-29

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