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西北某退役炼油厂地下水中挥发性有机物污染特征及健康风险评价

李淼 刘威杰 余悦 邢新丽 张原 李小倩 刘运德 祁士华

李淼, 刘威杰, 余悦, 邢新丽, 张原, 李小倩, 刘运德, 祁士华. 西北某退役炼油厂地下水中挥发性有机物污染特征及健康风险评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 293-306. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220475
引用本文: 李淼, 刘威杰, 余悦, 邢新丽, 张原, 李小倩, 刘运德, 祁士华. 西北某退役炼油厂地下水中挥发性有机物污染特征及健康风险评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 293-306. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220475
LI Miao, LIU Weijie, YU Yue, XING Xinli, ZHANG Yuan, LI Xiaoqian, LIU Yunde, QI Shihua. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in groundwater in a decommissioned oil refinery in Northwest China[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 293-306. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220475
Citation: LI Miao, LIU Weijie, YU Yue, XING Xinli, ZHANG Yuan, LI Xiaoqian, LIU Yunde, QI Shihua. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in groundwater in a decommissioned oil refinery in Northwest China[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 293-306. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220475

西北某退役炼油厂地下水中挥发性有机物污染特征及健康风险评价

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220475
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2020YFC1807101

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李淼, E-mail: limiao98513@163.com

    通讯作者:

    邢新丽, E-mail: xlxing@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: X143

Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in groundwater in a decommissioned oil refinery in Northwest China

More Information
  • 摘要:

    挥发性有机物(VOCs)可长期存在于地下水中,从而对人体产生危害。针对西北某退役炼油厂受有机物污染的浅层地下水,开展了地下水中挥发性有机物的污染特征调查,并对其可能产生的健康风险进行评价。研究结果表明,该场地地下水中共检出18种VOCs,VOC单体检出率范围为6.25%~56.25%。特征污染物以苯和1, 2, 4-三甲苯为主,两者检出率均为56.25%,对照我国《地下水质量标准》(GB/T14848-2017)的Ⅲ类标准,苯和1, 2, 4-三甲苯超标率均达到50%。场地内污染物主要来自原液化气储罐区和原柴油灌区的垂向渗漏,表明这两个区域可能为该场地地下水的主要污染源,且污染物分布会受水文地质条件和地下水流向的综合影响,对场地下游地下水造成污染。健康风险评价结果表明,通过饮水途径造成的健康风险占据主导。83.3%的点位致癌风险值(CR)大于10-6,可能存在致癌风险,其中位于渣油罐区GW11点位的致癌风险值大于10-4,具有致癌风险;50%的点位危害商(HQ)大于1,会产生非致癌风险,对人体造成一定影响。因此,今后应加强对区域饮水问题的关注和管控。

     

  • 图 1  研究区水文地质剖面图

    Figure 1.  A hydrogeological profile of the study area

    图 2  研究区采样点示意图

    Figure 2.  Schematic diagram of sampling points in the study area

    图 3  场地内地下水VOCs空间分布(a),各类组分百分比(b)及各组分质量浓度分布(c)

    Figure 3.  Distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at the site: Spatial distribution (a), percentage of each component (b), and concentration distribution of each component (c)

    图 4  研究区地下水健康风险评价致癌风险(a)和危害商(b)

    Figure 4.  Groundwater health risk assessment in the study area: Carcinogenic risk (a) and hazard quotient (b)

    图 5  污染物不同途径致癌风险(a)和非致癌风险(b)贡献率

    Figure 5.  Contribution of different pollutant pathways to health risk: Carcinogenic risk (a) and noncarcinogenic risk (b)

    表  1  采样点地下水现场水质监测指标

    Table  1.   Monitoring indices of groundwater quality in situ at the sampling points

    编号 地下水水位埋深/m pH 氧化还原电位/mV 电导率/(mS·cm-1)
    GW1 8.5 7.34 110.6 2.90
    GW2 8.5 7.27 177.0 2.23
    GW3 7.5 7.38 -120.8 2.71
    GW4 6.7 7.38 -120.4 3.01
    GW5 7.3 7.39 -41.6 2.35
    GW6 8.0
    GW7 8.0 7.03 177.4 2.83
    GW8 8.3 7.64 159.8 2.33
    GW9 7.5 7.44 135.2 3.38
    GW10 8.5 7.45 -100.6 2.68
    GW11 7.0 7.41 -65.2 3.07
    GW12 6.5 7.59 -89.0 2.58
    GW13 6.8 7.33 18.8 2.21
    GW14 7.5 7.37 -89.9 2.65
    GW15 7.5 7.36 132.7 2.94
    GW16 8.0 7.28 88.3 4.75
    W1 18.0 7.63 129.5 2.42
    W2 30.0 7.72 131.3 1.02
    W3 15.5 7.42 138.8 3.22
    W4 6.8 7.59 133.5 1.75
    W5 - 8.44 55.0 4.59
    注:“—”表示未测得相关数据
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  污染物暴露参数

    Table  2.   Pollutant exposure parameters

    参数符号 参数名称 单位 数值
    U 日饮用水量 L/d 1
    TF 煮沸后VOCs的残留比 无量纲 0.3[28]
    EF 暴露频率 d/a 250
    ED 暴露期 a 25
    BW 个人体重 kg 61.8
    AT 致癌、非致癌效应平均时间 d 27 740,2 190
    SA 人体表面积 cm2 15 859
    PC 皮肤吸附参数 cm/h 0.001
    ET 暴露时间 h/d 0.5
    CF 转换系数 1 L/(1 000 cm3) 1
    DAIR 每日空气呼吸量 m3/d 14.5
    EFO 室外暴露频率 d/a 62.5
    EFI 室内暴露频率 d/a 187.5
    WAF 暴露于地下水的参考剂量分配比例 无量纲 0.33
    ABSgi 消化道吸收效率因子 无量纲 1
    SF 致癌斜率因子 (kg·d)/mg 表 3
    RfD 非致癌参考剂量 mg/(kg·d) 表 3
    IUR 呼吸吸入单位致癌因子 m3/mg 表 3
    RfC 呼吸吸入参考浓度 mg/m3 表 3
    ACR 可接受致癌风险 无量纲 10-6
    AHQ 可接受危害商 无量纲 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  污染物毒性参数[29]

    Table  3.   Pollutant toxicity parameters

    VOCs SFo/(kg·d·mg-1) RfDo/(mg·kg-1·d-1) IUR/(m3·mg-1) RfC/(mg·m-3)
    0.055 0.004 0.007 8 0.030
    甲苯 0.080 5.0
    乙苯 0.011 0.100 0.002 5 1
    对、间-二甲苯 0.200 0.1
    苯乙烯 0.200 1
    邻-二甲苯 0.200 0.1
    异丙苯
    正丙苯
    1, 3, 5-三甲苯 0.010
    4-异丙基甲苯
    正丁基苯
    1, 2, 4-三甲苯
    1, 2-二氯乙烷 0.091 0.006 0.026 0.007
    1, 1, 2-三氯乙烷 0.057 0.004 0.016 0.000 2
    1, 1, 2, 2-四氯乙烷 0.200 0.020 0.058
    1, 2, 3-三氯丙烷 30.000 0.004 0.000 3
    2-氯甲苯
    0.020 0.034 0.003
    注:“—”表示暂无相关参数;下标o为经口摄入
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  研究区有机污染物检出和超标情况

    Table  4.   Detection and exceedance of organic pollutants in the study area

    测试指标 检出率/% 最小质量浓度/(μg·L-1)* 最大质量浓度/(μg·L-1) GB/T14848-2017 Ⅲ类标准值/(μg·L-1) 超标点位数 超标率/% 最大超标倍数
    56.25 1.60 1 580.00 10 8 50.00 158.00
    甲苯 37.50 5.00 205.00 700 0 0.00 0.29
    乙苯 50.00 41.30 179.00 300 0 0.00 0.60
    对、间-二甲苯 43.75 88.50 333.00 500 0 0.00 0.67
    苯乙烯 6.25 14.90 14.90 20 0 0.00 0.75
    邻-二甲苯 50.00 6.00 157.00 0.00
    异丙苯 50.00 7.70 46.60 0.00
    正丙苯 50.00 14.50 59.20 0.00
    1, 3, 5-三甲苯 37.50 5.60 143.00 60 4 25.00 2.38
    4-异丙基甲苯 37.50 3.00 18.00 0.00
    正丁基苯 25.00 4.10 22.70 0.00
    1, 2, 4-三甲苯 56.25 15.40 921.00 56 8 50.00 16.45
    1, 2-二氯乙烷 6.25 151.00 151.00 30 1 6.25 5.03
    1, 1, 2-三氯乙烷 6.25 11.40 11.40 5 1 6.25 2.28
    1, 1, 2, 2-四氯乙烷 31.25 0.33 24.80 0.00
    1, 2, 3-三氯丙烷 6.25 3.90 3.90 0.00
    2-氯甲苯 18.75 2.70 25.70 0.00
    50.00 2.10 473.00 100 3 18.75 4.73
    注:*为已检出点位中的最小值;“—”表示暂无相关参数,下同
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  研究区超标有机污染物质量浓度

    Table  5.   Concentration of excessive organic pollutants in the study area ρB/(μg·L-1)

    超标点位 1, 3, 5-三甲苯 1, 2, 4-三甲苯 1, 2-二氯乙烷 1, 1, 2-三氯乙烷
    GW4 510 72.2 316 151 / 109
    GW5 422 115.0 921 / / 473
    GW6 232 143.0 427 / / 296
    GW10 51.8 / 613 / / /
    GW11 / / 171 / / /
    GW12 / / 197 / / /
    GW13 277 / / / / /
    GW14 1 580 / / / 11.4 /
    GW15 1 480 132.0 301 / / /
    GW16 64.6 / 159 / / /
    注:“/”表示未超标
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  基于饮水途径的地下水风险控制值

    Table  6.   Groundwater risk control values based on the drinking water pathway

    污染物 地下水风险控制值/(mg·L-1)
    致癌效应 非致癌效应
    1.66×10-2 0.10
    甲苯 1.91
    乙苯 8.31×10-2 2.38
    对、间-二甲苯 4.76
    苯乙烯 4.76
    邻-二甲苯 4.76
    1, 3, 5-三甲苯 0.24
    1, 2-二氯乙烷 1.00×10-2 0.14
    1, 1, 2-三氯乙烷 1.60×10-2 0.10
    1, 1, 2, 2-四氯乙烷 4.57×10-3 0.48
    1, 2, 3-三氯丙烷 3.05×10-5 0.10
    0.48
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-31
  • 录用日期:  2022-11-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-25

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