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北方岩溶区降水入渗补给系数及补给机制:以羊庄岩溶水系统为例

康凤新 郑婷婷 冯亚伟 徐秋晓 刘彬涛 王义生 李传谟

康凤新, 郑婷婷, 冯亚伟, 徐秋晓, 刘彬涛, 王义生, 李传谟. 北方岩溶区降水入渗补给系数及补给机制:以羊庄岩溶水系统为例[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 268-282. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220477
引用本文: 康凤新, 郑婷婷, 冯亚伟, 徐秋晓, 刘彬涛, 王义生, 李传谟. 北方岩溶区降水入渗补给系数及补给机制:以羊庄岩溶水系统为例[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 268-282. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220477
KANG Fengxin, ZHENG Tingting, FENG Yawei, XU Qiuxiao, LIU Bintao, WANG Yisheng, LI Chuanmo. Recharge coefficients and recharge mechanisms of precipitation to groundwater in karst areas of North China: A case study of Yangzhuang karst water system[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 268-282. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220477
Citation: KANG Fengxin, ZHENG Tingting, FENG Yawei, XU Qiuxiao, LIU Bintao, WANG Yisheng, LI Chuanmo. Recharge coefficients and recharge mechanisms of precipitation to groundwater in karst areas of North China: A case study of Yangzhuang karst water system[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 268-282. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220477

北方岩溶区降水入渗补给系数及补给机制:以羊庄岩溶水系统为例

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220477
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 42072331

国家自然科学基金项目 U1906209

泰山学者工程专项经费 tstp20230626

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    康凤新, E-mail: kangfengxin@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P641.2

Recharge coefficients and recharge mechanisms of precipitation to groundwater in karst areas of North China: A case study of Yangzhuang karst water system

More Information
  • 摘要:

    为建立北方岩溶区水文地质参数系列, 提高岩溶地下水可采资源计算精度, 笔者团队于20世纪80年代开始, 在山东羊庄封闭式泉排型岩溶水系统开展了岩溶水均衡试验研究, 积累了40余年的监测试验数据。根据长期野外水均衡要素观测资料, 推导出裸露型、半覆盖型和覆盖型岩溶区降水入渗补给系数计算公式, 建立了岩溶区降水入渗补给系数α与降水量P和地下水位埋深D的相关方程, 以及可调控的最大降水入渗补给系数系列, 揭示了降水入渗补给过程与α变化机制。结果表明: α随水位埋深D的改变而改变, 每个降水量P段分别对应一个最大降水入渗补给系数αmax和最大降水入渗补给量即补给极限Gmax, 相应的水位埋深便是最佳水位埋深DcriticalD>Dcritical时, 包气带截留量随着水位埋深的增大而增大, α < αmax; D < Dcritical时, 地表径流量随着地下水位埋深的减小而增大, α < αmax。不同的降水量段对应不同的Dcritical, 降水量增大时, 对应的αmaxDcritical也增大。在任意水位埋深时, Gmax为蓄满产流临界降水量与包气带最大截流量之差。本研究解决了岩溶区降水入渗补给的关键科学问题, 即揭示降水入渗补给机制、建立降水入渗补给系数与降水量和水位埋深的定量关系, 提升了我国北方岩溶水资源基础性研究水平。

     

  • 图 1  羊庄岩溶水系统概念模型图

    Figure 1.  Conceptual model of the Yangzhuang karst water system

    图 2  范村奥陶系入渗试验场地形及监测试验设施分布图(位置见图 1)

    Figure 2.  Terrain and the distribution of monitoring and experimental facilities at the Fancun Ordovician infiltration experiment site

    图 3  羊庄岩溶水系统四水循环示意图

    P.次降水量;Rs.超渗产流量;Ro.蓄满产流量;Re.表层岩溶带水溢出量;E.包气带截留量;G.降水入渗补给岩溶地下水量;ΔH.水位上升值;μ.给水度;ΔQ.地下水径流量增量;Q1, Q2.次降水补给前、后地下水径流量

    Figure 3.  Schematic diagram of the cycle of four types of water in the Yangzhuang karst water system

    图 4  不同类型岩溶区地表产流临界雨量-水位埋深关系曲线

    Ro为蓄满产流的临界雨量;Rs为超渗产流的临界雨量

    Figure 4.  Relationships between the critical rainfall amount of surface runoff and the water table depth in different types of karst area

    图 5  裸露型岩溶区包气带最大截流量曲线确定过程

    1.“×”表示降水都被包气带截留,对岩溶水没有产生补给,即降水量小于包气带最大截留量Emax;2.“∨”表示降水量在满足包气带最大截留量后,又下渗补给岩溶地下水

    Figure 5.  Process determining the maximum interception curve of the vadose zone in the bare karst area

    图 6  不同类型岩溶区包气带最大截留量曲线

    Figure 6.  Maximum interception curves of the vadose zone in different types of karst area

    图 7  裸露型岩溶区降水入渗补给系数α=f(P, D)曲线图

    Figure 7.  Curves of infiltration recharge coefficient α=f(P, D) of single precipitation event in the bare karst area

    图 8  裸露型岩溶区降水入渗补给量G=f(P, D)曲线图

    Figure 8.  Curves of infiltration recharge volume G=f(P, D) of single precipitation event in the bare karst area

    图 9  羊庄岩溶水系统寒武系奥陶系地层多年平均地表径流系数、包气带截留系数及降水入渗补给系数

    Figure 9.  Multi-year average surface runoff coefficients, vadose zone interception coefficients and precipitation infiltration recharge coefficients in the Cambrian-Ordovician strata of Yangzhuang karst water system

    图 10  裸露型岩溶区不同水位埋深下多年平均降水入渗补给系数

    Figure 10.  Multi-year average annual precipitation infiltration recharge coefficients under different water table depths in the bare karst area

    图 11  裸露型岩溶区不同水位埋深下岩溶地下水补给过程及最大补给量/含水层最大可调蓄库容概念模型

    Figure 11.  Conceptual model of karst groundwater recharge processes and maximum recharge/maximum adjustable storage aquifer capacity under different water table depths in the bare karst region

    图 12  裸露型岩溶区不同水位埋深下岩溶地下水最大补给量/含水层最大可调蓄库容

    Figure 12.  Maximum recharge of karst groundwater and maximum adjustable storage capacity of karst groundwater at different water table depths in the bare karst area

    图 13  裸露型岩溶区定埋深下(D=15 m)降水量与岩溶地下水补给量关系曲线

    Figure 13.  Relationship between precipitation and karst groundwater recharge under a fixed water table depth (D=15 m) in the bare karst area

    图 14  羊庄岩溶水系统一年各月降水入渗补给系数

    Figure 14.  Precipitation infiltration recharge coefficients of the Yangzhuang karst water system for each month of a year

    图 15  岩溶地下水位(22号监测孔)-降水量-开采量动态

    H.岩溶地下水位;D.水位埋深;P.降水量;CD.累计均值离差;Q.岩溶地下水开采量

    Figure 15.  Relationship between karst groundwater level (monitoring well 22) and precipitation and exploitation dynamics

    表  1  羊庄岩溶水系统降水入渗试验场基本概况及主要观测设施(位置见图 1)

    Table  1.   Basic overview and main observation facilities of the precipitation infiltration experimental sites in the Yangzhuang karst water system

    试验场名 基本概况 主要监测试验设施
    地层 岩性 面积/km2 岩溶区类型 降水量 地表径流量 地下水位、包气带截流量、入渗补给量、泉流量
    羊庄 第四系,下伏奥陶系 黏质砂土、砂质黏土 0.01 覆盖 自记雨量计 量筒 地中计、重力水托盘、岩溶水观测孔、自记水位计、负压计、中子水分仪
    范村 中、下奥陶统 灰岩、泥灰岩、白云岩 0.60 半覆盖 矩形复合堰、自记水位计 岩溶水观测孔、矩形堰、自记水位计
    龙山头 上寒武统凤山组 灰岩 0.33 裸露 矩形复合堰、自记水位计 岩溶水观测孔、矩形堰、自记水位计
    小李庄 上寒武统长山组、崮山组 泥质灰岩 0.82 裸露 矩形复合堰、自记水位计 观测泉、矩形堰
    龙王堂 中寒武统张夏组 灰岩 1.09 裸露 矩形复合堰、自记水位计 观测泉、矩形堰
    东鳧山 中、下寒武统徐庄组、毛庄组 砂质页岩夹灰岩 19.00 裸露 矩形复合堰、自记水位计 观测泉、矩形堰
    青莲 下寒武统馒头组 灰岩、页岩 0.31 裸露 矩形复合堰、自记水位计 观测泉、矩形堰
    石嘴子 太古宙花岗岩 花岗岩 49.50 非岩溶 水库水尺 观测泉、矩形堰
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  羊庄岩溶水系统各岩性区多年平均年降水入渗补给系数

    Table  2.   Multi-year average annual precipitation infiltration recharge coefficients for various lithologic regions in the Yangzhuang karst water system

    地层 岩性 面积/km2 地表径流系数γ 包气带截留系数β 降水入渗补给系数α
    第四系覆盖层 黏质砂土、砂质黏土 122 0.065 1 0.782 1 0.152 8
    奥陶系 灰岩、泥灰岩、白云岩 16 0.085 0 0.708 1 0.206 9
    上寒武统凤山组 灰岩 22 0.055 9 0.717 4 0.226 7
    上寒武统长山组、崮山组 泥质灰岩 170 0.066 6 0.719 4 0.214 0
    中寒武统张夏组 鲕粒灰岩 125 0.155 2 0.633 7 0.211 1
    中寒武统徐庄组、下寒武统毛庄组 砂页岩夹灰岩 62 0.385 8 0.503 9 0.110 3
    下寒武统馒头组 灰岩、页岩 23 0.035 4 0.761 9 0.202 7
    新太古代变质岩、各期侵入岩 变粒岩、花岗岩、闪长岩 110 0.243 6 0.680 8 0.075 6
    寒武系、奥陶系综合 418 0.138 9 0.663 6 0.197 5
    全系统综合 650 0.142 7 0.688 8 0.168 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  羊庄岩溶水系统裸露型岩溶区不同水位埋深下多年平均降水入渗补给系数α

    Table  3.   Multi-year average annual precipitation infiltration recharge coefficients under different water table depths in the bare karst area of the Yangzhuang karst water system

    水位埋深/m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    多年平均α 0.123 4 0.152 9 0.179 2 0.198 3 0.209 7 0.217 7 0.226 4 0.236 2 0.243 8
    水位埋深/m 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
    多年平均α 0.250 9 0.274 1 0.285 3 0.293 1 0.294 9 0.293 4 0.287 4 0.082 9 0.279 3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  裸露型岩溶区不同水位埋深下地下水最大补给量

    Table  4.   Maximum recharge of karst groundwater at different water table depths in the bare karst area

    地下水位埋深D/m 蓄满产流临界雨量Ro/mm 包气带最大截留量Emax/mm 地下水最大补给量Gmax/mm
    2 29.90 17.59 12.30
    5 50.87 25.55 25.31
    10 76.04 31.98 44.05
    15 96.20 35.84 60.36
    20 113.67 38.60 75.07
    25 129.37 40.75 88.62
    30 143.80 42.51 101.29
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-31
  • 修回日期:  2023-01-05

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