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基于数字露头的多尺度裂缝模型建立及其对地下裂缝预测指导

高翔 冯建伟 渠继航 杜赫

高翔, 冯建伟, 渠继航, 杜赫. 基于数字露头的多尺度裂缝模型建立及其对地下裂缝预测指导[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 143-155. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220599
引用本文: 高翔, 冯建伟, 渠继航, 杜赫. 基于数字露头的多尺度裂缝模型建立及其对地下裂缝预测指导[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 143-155. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220599
GAO Xiang, FENG Jianwei, QU Jihang, DU He. Establishment of multi-scale fracture model based on digital outcrop and its guidance for subsurface fracture prediction[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 143-155. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220599
Citation: GAO Xiang, FENG Jianwei, QU Jihang, DU He. Establishment of multi-scale fracture model based on digital outcrop and its guidance for subsurface fracture prediction[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 143-155. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220599

基于数字露头的多尺度裂缝模型建立及其对地下裂缝预测指导

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20220599
基金项目: 

中国石油重大科技项目 ZD2019-183-006

详细信息
    作者简介:

    高翔, E-mail: ggaox1201@163.com

    通讯作者:

    冯建伟, E-mail: linqu-fengjw@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P628

Establishment of multi-scale fracture model based on digital outcrop and its guidance for subsurface fracture prediction

More Information
  • 摘要:

    塔里木盆地台盆区发育大面积的深层碳酸盐岩油气藏, 构造裂缝是深层碳酸盐岩油气藏重要的储层渗流通道和储集空间, 但受多种地质因素的影响其分布具有强烈的非均质性, 目前无一套有效的技术方法解决储层多尺度裂缝定量化表征的难题。利用数字露头技术, 建立露头区三维数字模型, 并在此基础上开展露头裂缝识别及裂缝参数的定量描述。基于露头裂缝研究成果, 对于不同尺度裂缝的发育特点采用不同的建模方法, 针对大、中尺度裂缝, 分别采用确定性建模方法和基于分维理论的优化融合建模方法; 面对小尺度裂缝建模复杂的难题, 利用多元信息融合方法融合断层走向模型、距断层距离模型以及地层构造曲率模型建立小尺度裂缝综合发育概率体, 以裂缝综合发育概率体为约束, 多元数据协同模拟构建小尺度裂缝网络模型。结果表明: 在同一网格体系下, 将多尺度裂缝模型及构造模型叠加获得露头原型地质模型。将露头原型地质模型研究成果应用于塔里木盆地跃满地区地下储层裂缝建模中, 分尺度描述了裂缝产状、密度等主要建模参数, 确定了裂缝发育主控因素, 并结合井点裂缝分析成果, 构建了储层多尺度裂缝网络模型, 与单井裂缝解释、生产资料吻合度较好。实例研究表明露头原型地质模型研究成果可以为地下储层裂缝建模提供重要的研究思路和地质依据。

     

  • 图 1  研究区位置及地层岩性

    Figure 1.  Location and stratigraphic system of the study area

    图 2  原型地质模型构建方法流程图

    Figure 2.  Flow chart of prototype geological model construction method

    图 3  克斯勒塔格山露头裂缝发育特征

    Figure 3.  Fracture characteristics of the outcrop in Kiziltag Mountain

    图 4  克斯勒塔格山裂缝采样统计(Ⅰ~Ⅵ均为测点号)

    Figure 4.  Sampling statistics results of fractures in Kiziltag Mountain

    图 5  断层-裂缝交切关系特征

    Figure 5.  Characteristics of fault-fracture intersection relation

    图 6  克斯勒塔格山大尺度裂缝模型

    Figure 6.  Large scale fracture model of Kiziltag Mountain

    图 7  克斯勒塔格山中尺度裂缝网络

    Figure 7.  Mesoscale fracture network model of Kiziltag Mountain

    图 8  小尺度裂缝发育综合概率体

    Figure 8.  Comprehensive probability volume of small-scale fracture

    图 9  克斯勒塔格山小尺度裂缝发育模型

    Figure 9.  Small scale fracture model of Kiziltag Mountain

    图 10  克斯勒塔格山原型地质模型

    Figure 10.  Prototype geological model of Kiziltag Mountain

    图 11  克斯勒塔格山原型地质模型验证分析

    a.露头断层-缝裂提取;b.断层模拟结果; c.裂缝模拟结果

    Figure 11.  Verification and analysis of prototype geological model of Kiziltag Mountain

    图 12  跃满地区储层裂缝发育特征

    a.裂缝走向玫瑰花图; b.裂缝倾角统计直方图

    Figure 12.  Characteristics of reservoir fractures in the Yueman area

    图 13  跃满地区裂缝约束模型

    a.断层约束模型; b.储层岩性模型; c.应力强度模型; d.构造曲率模型

    Figure 13.  Fracture constraint model in the Yueman area

    图 14  跃满地区多尺度裂缝网络模型(D1~D4为井区的分段代号)

    Figure 14.  Multiscale fracture network model in the Yueman area

    图 15  实测裂缝密度与模拟裂缝密度对比

    Figure 15.  Comparison of the measured fracture density and simulated fracture density

    表  1  裂缝尺度三级划分标准

    Table  1.   Three-level division standard of the fracture scale

    裂缝级别 裂缝长度/m 裂缝开度/mm 应力条件 其他
    大尺度缝 > 100 > 1 区域应力场 具有微小断距的低级序断层
    中尺度缝 [10,100] [0.5, 1] 局部应力场 断距不明显的小断层或穿层的大裂缝,受隔层控制
    小尺度缝 < 10 < 0.5 派生应力场 层内、岩心裂缝,受多夹层控制
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  克斯勒塔格山断控裂缝密度统计

    Table  2.   Sampling statistics results of fractures in Kiziltag Mountain 裂缝密度/(条·m-1)

    测点号 距断层中心距离/m
    [0, 1) [1, 5) [5, 10) [10, 20) [20, 50) [50, 100]
    11.6 9.5 9.5 9.2 8.1 7.4 5.8 6.9 3.8 3.2 1.8 1.5
    10.5 10.2 8.4 8.1 6.2 6.6 4.8 4.4 2.1 2.0 3.1 0.8
    8.9 8.4 7.8 7.2 6.6 6.1 4.5 4.1 3.1 1.8 2.7 0.5
    7.6 7.4 6.5 5.8 4.1 3.4 3.2 3.9 2.2 2.8 1.8 1.2
    10.6 9.1 7.9 6.2 7.5 7.1 5.4 5.6 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.5
    7.1 7.2 6.9 6.1 4.4 4.8 3.9 3.4 1.2 1.5 1.9 0.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  裂缝建模输入参数

    Table  3.   Fracture modeling input parameters

    1期裂缝 2期裂缝 3期裂缝
    裂缝倾角/(°) 82 84 78
    裂缝走向/(°) 315 220 5
    Fisher分布κ 40 30 10
    最小裂缝长度/m 0.1 0.2 0.1
    最大裂缝长度/m 90 85 80
    幂律指数D 2.31 2.162 2.134
    裂缝长宽比 2.5 2.5 2.5
    裂缝线密度/(条·m-1) 9.4 6.8 2.6
    开度比例系数 10-5 10-5 10-5
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-10-24
  • 录用日期:  2023-02-07
  • 修回日期:  2023-01-12

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