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孕镶金刚石钻头磨损研究现状与发展趋势

段隆臣 孙武成 王志明 谭松成 高辉 方小红

段隆臣, 孙武成, 王志明, 谭松成, 高辉, 方小红. 孕镶金刚石钻头磨损研究现状与发展趋势[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(3): 200-217. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230034
引用本文: 段隆臣, 孙武成, 王志明, 谭松成, 高辉, 方小红. 孕镶金刚石钻头磨损研究现状与发展趋势[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(3): 200-217. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230034
DUAN Longchen, SUN Wucheng, WANG Zhiming, TAN Songcheng, GAO Hui, FANG Xiaohong. Research status and development trend on wear of impregnated diamond bits[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(3): 200-217. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230034
Citation: DUAN Longchen, SUN Wucheng, WANG Zhiming, TAN Songcheng, GAO Hui, FANG Xiaohong. Research status and development trend on wear of impregnated diamond bits[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(3): 200-217. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230034

孕镶金刚石钻头磨损研究现状与发展趋势

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230034
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41972327

国家自然科学基金项目 42272365

详细信息
    作者简介:

    段隆臣, E-mail: duanlongchen@cug.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    谭松成,E-mail:wstansongcheng@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P634.4;TE921

Research status and development trend on wear of impregnated diamond bits

More Information
  • 摘要:

    孕镶金刚石钻头广泛应用于各种硬岩钻进, 尤其是深部硬岩钻探钻井的工程实践活动中, 其碎岩机制表现为金属胎体包裹的金刚石出刃后压入、刻划和破碎岩石。金刚石钻头的磨损形式反映了孔底钻头-岩石的相互作用过程, 以及磨粒(包括岩屑、胎体碎屑和金刚石碎屑等)在孔底的存在状态, 它决定了金刚石钻头的钻进效率和使用寿命。目前关于孕镶金刚石钻头磨损理论、方法的研究大部分属于定性判断, 且常局限于区域特殊情况, 无法形成统一或可借鉴的实用指导体系。以地质钻探领域的孕镶金刚石钻头磨损相关研究文献为主, 讨论了孕镶金刚石钻头磨损的研究现状。首先结合地质钻探工业实践和行业规程归纳了钻头的非正常磨损类型, 然后从磨损图像、钻进信号2个方面介绍了钻头磨损评价方法, 从钻头整体、金刚石和金属胎体3个方面梳理了钻头钻进过程磨损机理与影响因素, 另外列举了主流的钻头磨损性能调控方法, 介绍了磨损分析方程的研究进展, 并探讨了机器学习方法如何辅助钻头磨损研究。孕镶金刚石钻头在深部硬岩钻探中有极大的潜力, 而其磨损性能是决定其最终使用效果的关键。为此, 对人工智能方法辅助数据分析、微观尺度计算模拟、增材制造和材料处理改性等研究方向进行了分析展望, 探索先进的金刚石钻头的磨损监测分析和调控方法, 以期满足地质深部钻探和地外星系钻探等远程监控钻进的需求。

     

  • 图 1  钻头唇面的正常磨损[7]

    Figure 1.  Normal wear of bit working surface

    图 2  非正常磨损类型研究频次

    ①胎体唇面抛光; ②胎体唇面拉槽(包括胎体拉槽与唇面沟槽等); ③胎体唇面偏磨(包括内外径锥形、喇叭形、台阶形、薄壁形等、唇部磨坏等); ④胎体裂纹与掉块(包括胎体裂纹、崩落、唇部麻面等); ⑤胎体磨损过快; ⑥金刚石磨损异常(金刚石大量脱落、碎裂); ⑦钢体刻痕/拉槽; ⑧钻头冲蚀变形(含胎体、水口、钢体等); ⑨钻头胀裂; ⑩钻头烧钻

    Figure 2.  Research frequency of abnormal wear type

    图 3  金刚石钻头唇面磨损的实验、评价和统计[19]

    a. s=200 mm, m=50 min时的微观图像(二维数据); b. s=200 mm, m=50 min时的表面测量(三维数据); c. s=300 mm, m=75 min时的微观图像(二维数据); d. s=300 mm, m=75 min时的表面测量(三维数据); s.累计钻进深度; m.累计钻进时间

    Figure 3.  Experiment, evaluation and statistics of diamond bit working surface wear

    图 4  金刚石钻头唇面胎体磨损测量[25]

    a.光学图像;b.扫描电镜图像

    Figure 4.  Wear measurement of the diamond bit matrices

    图 5  深度学习卷积神经网络模型进行胎体磨损图像分割[27]

    Figure 5.  Wear image segmentation of matrices using a convolution neural network model based on deep learning

    图 6  孕镶金刚石钻头钻进过程声发射信号监测[31-33]

    v.钻速;Ω.转速;WOB.钻压;TOB.扭矩;A.钻头-岩石接触界面

    Figure 6.  Acoustic emission signal monitoring during drilling of impregnated diamond bits

    图 7  金刚石钻头钻进唇面磨损机制示意图

    Figure 7.  Schematic of the wear mechanism on a diamond bits working surface during drilling

    图 8  深度学习辅助孕镶金刚石钻头热损伤研究[89]

    Figure 8.  Deep learning enabled impregnated diamond bit thermal damage research

    表  1  钻头磨损影响因素

    Table  1.   Influencing facters of bit wear

    磨损影响因素 影响形式
    钻头参数 金刚石参数 金刚石品级 金刚石出刃状态;钻头唇面-岩石间的间隙高度、接触面积; 钻头唇面的清洁、冷却状态; 钻头唇面宏观磨损形态
    金刚石粒度
    金刚石浓度
    抗冲击韧性
    胎体性能 胎体强度
    胎体硬度
    胎体耐磨性
    胎体把持力
    钻头结构 唇面形状
    唇面尺寸
    水口分布
    水槽分布
    地层性质 岩层参数 岩石类型 岩屑的颗粒级配、形貌等差异; 岩屑的组成矿物及研磨性
    造岩矿物粒度
    矿物胶结程度
    岩石强度
    岩石硬度
    岩石研磨性
    岩石裂隙度
    岩层完整性
    软硬夹层
    地层环境 地层温度 钻头的工作温度、压力; 钻头的孔底清洁状态
    地层压力
    钻进参数 规程参数 钻压 钻头的孔底冷却状态
    转速
    泵量
    介质参数 pH值 腐蚀磨损程度
    电解质种类与浓度
    下载: 导出CSV
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