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基于RAMMS数值模拟的短时强降雨型泥石流危险性评价

庞海松 谢骏锦 张小明 王官贺 张明

庞海松, 谢骏锦, 张小明, 王官贺, 张明. 基于RAMMS数值模拟的短时强降雨型泥石流危险性评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 215-225. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230153
引用本文: 庞海松, 谢骏锦, 张小明, 王官贺, 张明. 基于RAMMS数值模拟的短时强降雨型泥石流危险性评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 215-225. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230153
PANG Haisong, XIE Junjin, ZHANG Xiaoming, WANG Guanhe, ZHANG Ming. Hazard assessment of debris flow induced by short-time heavy rainfall based on RAMMS numerical simulation[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 215-225. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230153
Citation: PANG Haisong, XIE Junjin, ZHANG Xiaoming, WANG Guanhe, ZHANG Ming. Hazard assessment of debris flow induced by short-time heavy rainfall based on RAMMS numerical simulation[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 215-225. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230153

基于RAMMS数值模拟的短时强降雨型泥石流危险性评价

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230153
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41472264

详细信息
    作者简介:

    庞海松, E-mail: panghaisong@cug.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    张明, E-mail: zhangming8157@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P642.23

Hazard assessment of debris flow induced by short-time heavy rainfall based on RAMMS numerical simulation

More Information
  • 摘要:

    浙江省由短时强降雨诱发的泥石流灾害频发, 严重威胁当地居民的生命财产安全, 因此对此类泥石流进行危险性评价对浙江省"灾害智治"工作具有十分重要的理论与实际应用价值。为研究浙江短时强降雨诱发小型泥石流的危险性, 选取武山坑泥石流为对象, 通过现场调查、三维倾斜摄影与数值模拟等手段, 查明了武山坑泥石流的地质环境与发育特征, 揭示了由短时强降雨诱发的泥石流灾害链生过程特征, 选用RAMMS软件对不同降雨频率下泥石流运动特征进行了模拟, 获取了泥石流深度、流速、堆积范围等特征参数, 并基于特征参数进行了泥石流危险性评价。研究结果表明: 陡坡处松散岩土体在短时强降雨作用下发生浅层滑坡, 随后在坡面与沟道地形控制下向沟口运移, 运动过程中通过侵蚀作用扩大泥石流规模, 最终在宽缓堆积区沉积。随着研究区降雨强度增大至50 a一遇及100 a一遇, 泥石流冲出规模扩大, 但受限于堆积区宽缓的地形条件, 未能于沟口形成有效冲出; 但堆积扇上游居民区泥石流深度、流速等强度指标显著增大, 堆积区内高强度区域面积大小由7 276 m2增大至12 660 m2。结合泥石流活跃性分析结果, 采取形成区雨量监测、主沟谷流通区构建刚性、柔性或狭缝拦挡坝以及堆积区设置导流渠相结合的治理措施, 可有效保障居民生命财产安全。研究成果可为武山坑及浙江省此类泥石流危险性评价、防治工程设计提供参考。

     

  • 图 1  研究区地理位置图

    Figure 1.  Location of the study area

    图 2  泥石流流域地质简图

    Figure 2.  Geological sketch of debris flow watershed

    图 3  泥石流期间降雨数据

    Figure 3.  Rainfull data during debris flow

    图 4  武山坑泥石流发育特征

    a.泥石流分区特征;b.Ⅰ~Ⅳ号浅层滑坡;c.Ⅴ号浅层滑坡;d.沟岸浅层滑坡;e.被冲毁的建筑;f.泥石流堆积体

    Figure 4.  Development characteristics of debris flow in Wushangkeng

    图 5  滑坡-泥石流灾害链链生过程示意图(Ⅰ~Ⅴ为浅层滑坡编号)

    Figure 5.  Schematic diagram of disaster chain process governing of landslide-debris flow

    图 6  校核工况下泥石流运动特征

    a.最大泥石流深度;b.最大流动速度

    Figure 6.  Movement characteristics of debris flow under check condition

    图 7  泥石流堆积特征

    Figure 7.  Accumulation characteristics of debris flow

    图 8  泥石流危险性划分标准

    Figure 8.  Classification criteria of hozard for debris flow

    图 9  泥石流危险性分区图

    Figure 9.  Hazard zoning of debris flow

    表  1  泥石流堆积体颗粒分析及重度计算结果

    Table  1.   Results of particle analysis and gravity calculation of debris flow accumulation

    各粒径组成 计算参数 计算重度
    P05 P2 γD/(t·m-3)
    粒径/mmwB/% >2022.4 [10, 20]15.2 [5, 10)11.2 [2, 5)10.3 [0.5, 2)13.3 [0.25, 0.5)13.6 [0.05, 0.25)10 < 0.054 0.04 0.59 1.78
    注:P05为粒径 < 0.05 mm的细颗粒的体积分数,小数; P2为粒径>2mm的粗颗粒的体积分数,小数
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同降雨频率下泥石流流量计算结果

    Table  2.   Calculated results of the debris flow under different rainfall frequencies

    释放点 降雨频率p/% 降雨量/(mm·h-1) 清水洪峰流量Qp/(m3·s-1) 泥石流峰值流量Qc/(m3·s-1) 一次过程总量Q/m3
    主沟G1 5 75.1 19.7 46.1 8 762.7
    2 89.3 24.7 57.8 10 986.6
    1 100.2 28.2 66.0 12 545.3
    支沟G2 5 75.1 3.9 8.3 1 577.7
    2 89.3 4.9 10.5 1 995.8
    1 100.2 5.7 12.2 2 318.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  泥石流数值模拟精度表

    Table  3.   Accuracy of numerical simulation of debris flow

    泥石流名称 泥石流堆积面积/103 m2 冲出方量/103 m3 误差率/%
    实测值 模拟值 重合值 准确度A/% 模拟值 调查值
    武山坑泥石流 9.5 10.6 9.0 80.4 8.1 9.2 -12
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  泥石流强度划分

    Table  4.   Classification of debris flow intensity

    强度 堆积深度H/m 关系式 堆积深度H与流速V的乘积
    H≥2.5 OR VH≥2.5
    0.5≤H < 2.5 AND 0.5≤VH < 2.5
    0≤H < 0.5 AND VH < 0.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  各降雨频率下泥石流堆积区危险性分区统计

    Table  5.   Hazard zoning of debris flow accumulation areas under different rainfall frequencies

    降雨频率/% 高危险性 中危险性 低危险性
    面积/m2 占比/% 面积/m2 占比/% 面积/m2 占比/%
    5 7 276 32.2 9 500 42.0 5 828 25.8
    2 9 952 37.6 11 972 45.3 4 536 17.1
    1 0 0 12 660 40.5 18 576 59.5
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-03-22
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-28

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