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河北省典型铅锌矿区重金属来源解析及生态风险评价

刘安 于聪灵 王立平 宋娟娟 孙连伟 金倩 孙孟华

刘安, 于聪灵, 王立平, 宋娟娟, 孙连伟, 金倩, 孙孟华. 河北省典型铅锌矿区重金属来源解析及生态风险评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 307-317. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230373
引用本文: 刘安, 于聪灵, 王立平, 宋娟娟, 孙连伟, 金倩, 孙孟华. 河北省典型铅锌矿区重金属来源解析及生态风险评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(2): 307-317. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230373
LIU An, YU Congling, WANG Liping, SONG Juanjuan, SUN Lianwei, JIN Qian, SUN Menghua. Heavy metal sources and ecological risk assessment of typical lead-zinc mining areas in Hebei Province[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 307-317. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230373
Citation: LIU An, YU Congling, WANG Liping, SONG Juanjuan, SUN Lianwei, JIN Qian, SUN Menghua. Heavy metal sources and ecological risk assessment of typical lead-zinc mining areas in Hebei Province[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(2): 307-317. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230373

河北省典型铅锌矿区重金属来源解析及生态风险评价

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230373
基金项目: 

河北省地矿局地质科技项目 454-0601-YBN-DONH

河北省地矿局地质科技项目 13000022P0069B410045K

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘安, E-mail: hbbdliuan@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    于聪灵, E-mail: yucongling@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: X14

Heavy metal sources and ecological risk assessment of typical lead-zinc mining areas in Hebei Province

More Information
  • 摘要:

    为揭示河北省典型铅锌矿区重金属来源及生态风险,以河北省某铅锌矿区周边区域为研究对象,通过系统的田间采样采集了156件土壤样品,通过主成分分析(PCA)及正定矩阵因子分解(PMF)模型分析,分析了区域内重金属的来源;运用地累积指数法及潜在生态风险指数法进行了风险评价。研究结果表明,Cr,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Cd,Pb和Hg质量分数平均值分别为53.6,25.7,62.7,692,10.6,1.75,142,0.129 mg/kg,除Cr,Ni和As外,其余5种重金属均处于不同的污染水平,平均值均超河北省土壤背景值,Hg,Cd,Zn,Pb和Cu的变异系数均大于1.75,As的变异系数大于0.5,表明这6种重金属属于高度变异。源解析显示,研究区土壤重金属的主要来源为采矿活动、自然来源、农业活动和金矿冶炼,其中,Pb,Zn和Cd主要源于采矿活动;Cr,Ni主要受自然母质的影响,属于自然来源;Cu主要受农业活动和采矿活动的双重影响;As受自然来源、采矿活动和农业活动三重控制;Hg主要源于金矿冶炼和采矿活动。PCA与PMF模型有机结合、彼此印证,增加了重金属来源解析结果的可信度。研究区存在人为因素引起的Hg和Cd污染,地累积指数和潜在生态风险指数高,生态风险总体属于极高生态风险,需要重点关注并开展治理工作。

     

  • 图 1  研究区区域位置及土壤采样点分布

    a.涞源县位置;b.研究区位置;c.研究区周边村镇位置;d.土壤采样点位置

    Figure 1.  Regional location and distribution of soil sampling points in the study area

    图 2  铅锌矿区周边不同类型土壤重金属质量分数

    Figure 2.  Contents of heavy metals in different types of soils around lead-zinc mining areas

    图 3  重金属PMF源解析贡献

    Figure 3.  Contribution of heavy metal PMF source analysis

    图 4  地累积指数结果

    a.地累积指数箱线图; b.重金属分级比例

    Figure 4.  Results of geoaccumulation indeices

    表  1  Hakanson潜在生态风险分级标准[32]

    Table  1.   Grading standard of Hakanson potential ecological risk

    单因子潜在生态风险指数Ejr 潜在生态风险指数RI 生态风险等级
    <40 <150
    [40, 80) [150, 300) 中等
    [80, 160) [300, 600) 较高
    [160, 320) ≥600
    ≥320 极高
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  河北省某典型铅锌矿区及周边地区重金属质量分数特征

    Table  2.   Characteristics of heavy metal contents in a typical lead-zinc mining and surrounding areas in Hebei Province

    项目 Cr Ni Cu Zn As Cd Pb Hg
    最小值/(mg·kg-1) 16.0 13.5 17.3 64.2 1.95 0.10 12.4 0.005 9
    最大值/(mg·kg-1) 81.9 35.5 818 11 864 35.3 29.7 1 512 3.75
    平均值/(mg·kg-1) 53.6 25.7 62.7 692 10.6 1.75 142 0.129
    标准差/(mg·kg-1) 12.6 5.08 110 1 558 5.65 3.93 251 0.366
    变异系数CV 0.24 0.20 1.75 2.24 0.53 2.25 1.77 2.84
    河北省重金属土壤背景值[27]/(mg·kg-1) 68.3 30.8 21.8 78.4 13.6 0.094 21.5 0.076[28]
    农用地土壤污染风险筛选值[33]/(mg·kg-1) 250 190 100 300 25 0.6 170 3.4
    超农用地土壤污染风险筛选值比例/% 0.00 0.00 11.9 30.6 4.38 35.6 18.8 1.25
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  土壤重金属含量主成分分析结果

    Table  3.   Results of principal component analysis of heavy metal content in the soil

    重金属 PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
    Cr -0.362 0.879 0.095 -0.003
    Ni -0.184 0.952 0.149 -0.011
    Cu 0.331 -0.299 0.863 0.142
    Zn 0.941 0.209 -0.138 -0.118
    As 0.683 0.425 0.445 -0.206
    Cd 0.952 0.202 -0.118 -0.088
    Pb 0.928 0.203 -0.172 -0.128
    Hg 0.459 0.281 -0.086 0.836
    方差贡献率/% 52.5 18.7 12.9 11.1
    累积方差贡献率/% 52.5 71.2 84.1 95.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  土壤重金属测定值与模型预测值拟合结果

    Table  4.   Fitting results of the measured and model-predicted values of the soil heavy metals

    重金属 决定系数R2 截距 斜率 信噪比(S/N) 预测值与实际值比(P/O)
    Cr 0.921 -4.070 1.072 10.0 0.99
    Ni 0.869 -1.393 1.047 10.0 0.99
    Cu 0.668 11.324 0.752 10.0 0.98
    Zn 0.975 43.070 0.829 10.0 0.99
    As 0.368 5.626 0.348 10.0 0.97
    Cd 0.974 0.049 0.887 6.7 0.99
    Pb 0.945 -25.174 1.220 10.0 0.99
    Hg 0.999 -0.0004 1.005 9.8 1.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  土壤重金属潜在生态风险指数

    Table  5.   Potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soils

    元素 潜在生态风险指数 占比/%
    平均值 范围 低风险 中等风险 较高风险 高风险 极高风险
    Cr 1.57 0.47~2.40 100 0 0 0 0
    Ni 4.18 2.19~5.76 100 0 0 0 0
    Cu 14.40 3.97~188 94.2 3.2 1.3 1.3 0
    Zn 8.82 0.82~151 94.2 3.2 2.6 0 0
    As 7.81 1.43~26.00 100 0 0 0 0
    Cd 557.00 32.2~9 479 8.3 35.9 17.3 12.8 25.7
    Pb 33.00 2.88~352 80.8 7.7 7.1 3.8 0.6
    Hg 68.00 3.11~1 974 75.0 12.8 5.8 0.6 5.8
    RI 695.00 58.0~10 025 44.2 23.1 9.6 23.1
    RI. 综合潜在生态风险指数
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-07-03
  • 录用日期:  2023-09-15
  • 修回日期:  2023-09-07

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