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长乐-诏安断裂带东支东山段晚更新世活动的年代学证据及其意义

郭纪盛 乔岳强 汤勇 余松 查雁鸿 胡庆 雷东宁 蔡永建

郭纪盛, 乔岳强, 汤勇, 余松, 查雁鸿, 胡庆, 雷东宁, 蔡永建. 长乐-诏安断裂带东支东山段晚更新世活动的年代学证据及其意义[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 160-172. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230434
引用本文: 郭纪盛, 乔岳强, 汤勇, 余松, 查雁鸿, 胡庆, 雷东宁, 蔡永建. 长乐-诏安断裂带东支东山段晚更新世活动的年代学证据及其意义[J]. 地质科技通报, 2024, 43(1): 160-172. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230434
GUO Jisheng, QIAO Yueqiang, TANG Yong, YU Song, ZHA Yanhong, HU Qing, LEI Dongning, CAI Yongjian. Chronological evidence and significance of Late Pleistocene activity in the Dongshan segment of the eastern branch of the Changle-Zhao'an fault belt[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 160-172. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230434
Citation: GUO Jisheng, QIAO Yueqiang, TANG Yong, YU Song, ZHA Yanhong, HU Qing, LEI Dongning, CAI Yongjian. Chronological evidence and significance of Late Pleistocene activity in the Dongshan segment of the eastern branch of the Changle-Zhao'an fault belt[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2024, 43(1): 160-172. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230434

长乐-诏安断裂带东支东山段晚更新世活动的年代学证据及其意义

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.tb20230434
基金项目: 

中国地震局地震研究所基本科研业务费专项资助项目和中国地震局地壳应力研究所基本科研业务费专项资助项目 IS2018126278

中国地震局社会公益研究项目 1521401800062

详细信息
    作者简介:

    郭纪盛, E-mail: 916606774@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    乔岳强, E-mail: qiaoyueqiang@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P542

Chronological evidence and significance of Late Pleistocene activity in the Dongshan segment of the eastern branch of the Changle-Zhao'an fault belt

More Information
  • 摘要:

    长乐-诏安断裂带是福建沿海的主要活动断裂之一,沿断裂带曾发生多次破坏性地震,是福建省陆域上的主要发震构造。中国东部地区破坏性地震的发生与晚更新世活动断裂有密切联系,因此研究长乐-诏安断裂带在晚更新世的活动具有重要意义。在对福建省东山县最新发现的长乐-诏安断裂东支东山段剖面的野外详细调查的基础上,通过对断层下盘地层和断层上断点以上地层中钾长石光释光测年,确定了长乐-诏安断裂带东支东山段的具体活动时间在(34.8±8.3)~(48.0±3.5)ka之间,显示该断裂至晚更新世晚期仍有活动,属晚更新世活动断裂;通过震级(M)与地震断层位错量(D)经验关系拟合法估算,该断裂的最大发震能力为6.5~7.0级地震。该晚更新世活动断裂的确定和最大震级估算,为长乐-诏安断裂带的活动性提供了确切年代学证据,为东山县地区城市安全评价提供了依据。

     

  • 图 1  东南沿海地震构造图

    新构造分区:Ⅰ.武夷-戴云隆升区:Ⅰ1.闽西断块隆起区,Ⅰ2.闽中掀斜隆起区,Ⅰ3.闽东沿海断块差异上升区;Ⅱ.台湾海峡沉降区。断裂名称:F1.邵武-河源断裂,F2.丽水-海丰断裂,F3.潮安-普宁断裂,F4.饶平-汕头断裂,F5.长乐-诏安断裂,F6.滨海断裂带台湾海峡段,F6-1.滨海断裂带泉州海外段,F6-2.滨海断裂带金门海外段,F6-3.滨海断裂带东山海外段,F6-4.滨海断裂带南澳海外段,F6-5.滨海断裂带汕头海外段,F7.滨海断裂带南海北部段,F8.台湾浅滩西南断裂,F9.南澎岛外断裂,F10.普宁-田心断裂,F11.榕江断裂,F12.韩江断裂,F13.黄岗水断裂,F14.上杭-云霄断裂,F15.九龙江断裂,F16.永安-安溪断裂,F17.澎湖隆起北缘断裂,F18.澎湖隆起南缘断裂,F19.沙县-南日岛断裂(据2022年全国自然灾害风险普查福建省、广东省1∶25万地震构造图成果绘制)

    Figure 1.  Seismic structure map of the southeast coast of China

    图 2  沃角村西北断层解译剖面图(样品GSG1位于断层上断点上部地层;样品GSG2、GSG3位于断裂下盘)

    Figure 2.  Sectional view of the fault at northwest of Aojiao Village

    图 3  沃角村西北断层剖面的细节照片

    a.断层剖面全景照片;b断层剖面;c.断层上断点示意图;d.断层下盘砾石标志层被断层截断;e.断层内部定向排列的砾石及上盘砾石标志层被断层截断

    Figure 3.  Detailed photos of the fault section at northwest of the Aojiao Village

    图 4  样品释光剂量生长曲线、信号衰减曲线和剂量分布图

    Figure 4.  Sample luminescence dose growth curve, signal attenuation curve and dose distribution diagram

    图 5  地震震源深度-震级剖面图

    Figure 5.  Depth-magnitude profile of earthquake focus

    图 6  长乐-诏安断裂东支东山段地震构造图

    F7-3.长乐-诏安断裂东支:F7-3-1.东山岛湖仔头断裂,F7-3-2.下垵断裂,F7-3-3.将军澳海边断裂;F7-2.长乐-诏安断裂中支: F7-2-2.寨里断裂,F7-2-3.董塘断裂,F7-2-4.浦头断裂;F7-3.长乐-诏安断裂西支; F15.黄冈水断裂,F16.上杭-云霄断裂; F16-1.霞河-大铺断裂,F16-2.下垵断裂, F16-3.沙西镇断裂; F3.南澳断裂

    Figure 6.  Seismic structure map of the Dongshan section of the eastern branch of the Changle-Zhao′an fault

    图 7  地震震级计算结果统计柱状图

    Figure 7.  Statistical histogram of calculation results of earthquake magnitude

    表  1  断裂简介及前人研究汇总

    Table  1.   Brief introduction of faults and summary of previous studies

    分段 断裂位置及特征 活动年代 断裂活动特征认识
    西支(内带) 北起福清的东张一带,向南经莆田的城关西、泉州马甲、南安的洪濑和东田、同安的古宅、漳州,延伸到诏安的汀洋浦,展布宽约十几千米,延伸长约310 km。总体走向NE20°~50°,倾向NW或SE,倾角65°~80°。断裂力学性质主要为压性、压扭性,呈逆冲、逆断、走滑特征,走滑以左旋为多见 Qp1-2 莆田盆地、泉州盆地,沉降幅度为16 m,沉降速率1.6 mm/a;漳州盆地沉降幅度为14 m,沉降速率1.4 mm/a[3]
    中支北段(中带) 该断裂带北起长乐的琯头,向南经君竹、长乐城关、福清、莆田、惠安、泉州至晋江,宽度可达数十米至2 km,延伸长度约250 km。总体走向NE20°~40°,倾向SE为主,倾角以65°~80°多见。断裂力学性质主要为压扭性,次有张性,呈逆断、走滑、正断特征,走滑以右旋为多见 Qp1-2 龙海盆地沉降幅度32 m,沉降速率3.2 mm[15-17]闽中沿海海岸晚更新世以来,沉降速率2.4~2.8 mm/a[12]莆田朱厝-铁炉地段,垂向沉降速率1.1 mm/a[22]
    中支南段(中带) 该断裂北起厦门岛东北端的钟宅经筼筜港,向西南延伸经龙海县、漳浦县等地,至东山县前梧,延伸长度约104 km。总体走向NE35°~50°,倾向NW或SE,倾角60°~85°。断裂力学性质主要为压性、压扭性,呈逆冲、走滑特征,走滑以左旋为多见 Qp1-2Qp3 闽南粤东海岸晚更新世以来,沉降速率2~2.4 mm/a[12];金刚山一带:0.25 mm/a;常山一带:0.56 mm/a;前梧下溪一带:0.5 mm/a;峛屿林坪:垂向平均速率0.56 mm/a [13];白云山一带:水平活动速率1.33~1.67 mm/a;上盘下降速率为0.4~0.6 mm/a,为晚更新世断裂[22];晋江罗裳山-灵源山断裂为早中更新世断裂[10];钟宅-筼筜港断裂为早中更新世断裂[10];东山前梧断裂为中更新世[10]
    东支(外带) 北起平潭青峰,向南经福清的东瀚,莆田的埭头、湄洲岛,惠安的崇武和小岞,晋江的深沪、金井,至龙海和漳浦海滨玄武岩分布地区,再向南延伸到东山澳角和宫前,呈断续分布,延伸长约365 km。整体走向NE30°~50°,倾向SE或NW,倾角陡峭。断裂力学性质主要为扭性、压扭性,呈逆断、逆冲、走滑特征,走滑以左旋为多见 Qp1-2Qp3 陈城一带:沉降速率0.56 mm/a; 亲营山一带:0.5 mm/a[13];在东山沃角,断裂两盘沉积物高程及厚度差异,推断该断裂时代为晚更新世-全新世[14];高山断裂:石英脉热释光年龄>1 500 ka,断层泥时间:(158±12)ka[10];东瀚断裂:断裂切割中更新世坡积物,上部再被晚更新世坡积物覆盖,未被切割[10];晋江深沪-金井断裂:垂直滑动速率为2.2 mm/a[10]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  堆积阶地简表

    Table  2.   Summary of marine terraces

    阶地 绝对高程/m 测年/10 ka 分布范围 地层特征 资料来源
    T0 3~5 0.5 在福州盆地、长乐平原、莆田平原、泉州平原、龙海平原及沿海其他海湾地区 由灰白色、灰色、深灰色淤泥, 黏土, 灰黑色炭质淤泥等海相沉积物组成的海湾平原 文献[8]
    T1 10 1~0.5 福州盆地、泉州平原、漳州盆地-龙海平原、诏安盆地及福清龙高半岛、莆田笏石半岛、惠安东部、晋江半岛、南安东南部、同安东部、厦门、漳浦、云霄、东山、诏安沿海等地 由灰白色、灰黄色砂、黏土, 灰色、灰黑色炭质淤泥等海相沉积物组成的Ⅰ级阶地 文献[8]
    T2-3 10~50 5.5~0.9 主要零星分布在沿海地区的红土台地坳谷里, 如龙高半岛、笏石半岛、惠安东部、晋江半岛、南安东南部、同安东部、厦门、漳浦、云霄、东山、诏安沿海等地 以红色为主,由于组分和氧化程度的差异又可细分为砖红色、棕红色、鲜红色、浅红色等。物质成分主要是半胶结的石英粉细砂。砂粒多为次圆状,分选较好,仍见中、粗砂及细砾 文献[8, 26-31]
    T2 15~25 1.8~1 由黄白色、棕黄色砂质黏土,夹有灰色、灰黑色炭质淤泥, 含有砾石的海相沉积物组成的Ⅱ级阶地 文献[8]
    T3 30~50 3.5~1.8 由棕红色、浅棕红色、棕黄色、灰白色含砾石砂土、黏土, 夹有灰色、灰黑色炭质淤泥,夹铁锰质层,具假网纹构造的海相沉积物组成的Ⅲ级阶地 文献[8]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  粗颗粒钾长石释光测年结果

    Table  3.   Luminescence dating results of coarse potassium feldspar

    样品编号 埋深/m 钾长石粒径/μm 238UwB/10-6 238ThwB/10-6 40KwB/% 含水量wB/% 环境剂量率/(Gy·ka-1) n/N OD/% 等效剂量/Gy 年龄/ka
    GSG1 0.6 90~180 1.09±0.02 5.00±0.02 0.8±0.01 10±5 2.0±0.2 9/9 18.0 72.3±4.5 34.8±8.3
    GSG2 1.4 90~180 1.26±0.02 6.96±0.01 1.02±0.01 10±5 2.4±0.2 9/9 5.0 115.4±2.1 48.0±3.5
    GSG3 2.3 90~180 1.21±0.03 5.89±0.02 1.03±0.02 10±5 2.3±0.2 9/9 4.0 178.7±2.8 77.7±4.5
    注:测试单位:中国地震局地质研究所实验测试中心
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  地震震级与最大同震位错经验关系公式及计算结果

    Table  4.   Empirical relationship formula between earthquake magnitude and maximum coseismic dislocation and calculation results

    经验关系 回归系数a 回归系数b 相关变量标准差σ 适用范围 断层垂直位错量D/m 估算震级 资料来源
    M=a+blogD 6.93 0.82 0.39 全球所有断层 0.8 6.85 文献[49]
    6.78 0.65 0.33 全球正断层 0.8 6.72 文献[49]
    7.04 0.89 0.28 全球走滑断层 0.8 6.95 文献[49]
    M=a+blogD 6.69 0.74 0.4 全球全部所有断层 0.8 6.62 文献[49]
    6.61 0.71 0.34 全球正断层 0.8 6.54 文献[49]
    6.81 0.78 0.29 全球走滑断 0.8 6.73 文献[49]
    7.32 0.61 0.435 东亚走滑断层 0.8 7.26 文献[50]
    7.43 0.52 0.445 板内走滑断层 0.8 7.38 文献[50]
    6.668 0.75 0.4 全球所有断层 0.8 6.60 文献[47]
    6.996 0.854 0.36 中国西部走滑断层 0.8 6.91 文献[53]
    下载: 导出CSV
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