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含盐沉积盆地挤压盐构造及其对油气成藏的意义

王莉 吴珍云 尹宏伟 董少春 毕晨洁 杨秀磊 王福远 刘松

王莉, 吴珍云, 尹宏伟, 董少春, 毕晨洁, 杨秀磊, 王福远, 刘松. 含盐沉积盆地挤压盐构造及其对油气成藏的意义[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 136-150. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0037
引用本文: 王莉, 吴珍云, 尹宏伟, 董少春, 毕晨洁, 杨秀磊, 王福远, 刘松. 含盐沉积盆地挤压盐构造及其对油气成藏的意义[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(5): 136-150. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0037
Wang Li, Wu Zhenyun, Yin Hongwei, Dong Shaochun, Bi Chenjie, Yang Xiulei, Wang Fuyuan, Liu Song. Compressional salt structures of salt-bearing sedimentary basins and its significance to hydrocarbon accumulation[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 136-150. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0037
Citation: Wang Li, Wu Zhenyun, Yin Hongwei, Dong Shaochun, Bi Chenjie, Yang Xiulei, Wang Fuyuan, Liu Song. Compressional salt structures of salt-bearing sedimentary basins and its significance to hydrocarbon accumulation[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(5): 136-150. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0037

含盐沉积盆地挤压盐构造及其对油气成藏的意义

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0037
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41602208

国家自然科学基金项目 42072320

国家自然科学基金项目 41272227

东华理工大学博士启动基金项目 DHBK2019053

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王莉(1996-), 女, 现正攻读地质资源与地质工程专业硕士学位, 主要从事遥感与盐构造研究工作。E-mail: dlz0718@163.com

    通讯作者:

    吴珍云(1986-), 男, 讲师, 主要从事盐构造、构造解译及实验构造模拟研究工作。E-mail: zhenyun_wu@ecut.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P618.130.2

Compressional salt structures of salt-bearing sedimentary basins and its significance to hydrocarbon accumulation

  • 摘要: 挤压盐构造是在区域挤压应力场作用下形成的一种重要的盐构造类型,对沉积盆地内油气的生成、运移和圈闭成藏等具有重要的影响。在过去几十年内,挤压盐构造研究取得了重要进展,有效指导了挤压型含盐沉积盆地油气藏勘探。在综合分析盐岩物理特性、挤压盐构造变形演化,以及盐构造形成对油气成藏分布影响的基础上,探讨了挤压盐构造变形演化特征,分析了国内外典型含盐褶皱冲断带及其油气成藏特征;通过对比国内外含盐褶皱冲断带盐构造及典型油气藏,总结出国内外典型的含盐褶皱冲断带盐岩层均参与了构造变形,使得由造山带向盆地腹地,构造变形由强烈基底卷入逆冲推覆变形逐步过渡到薄皮滑脱褶皱变形,并影响褶皱冲断带内油气成藏的分布。最后,分析了目前我国含盐褶皱冲断带盐构造研究存在的问题以及未来盐构造研究方向。

     

  • 图 1  盐岩的物理特性[1, 7, 39-40]

    a.盐岩密度特性;b.盐岩热传导特性;c.盐岩流变特性;d.盐岩强度特性;e.盐岩黏度特性

    Figure 1.  Physical characteristics of salt rock

    图 2  盐构造沉积记录[47]

    Figure 2.  Sedimentary records of salt structure

    图 3  挤压作用发生的几种不同构造背景[20]

    Figure 3.  Several different tectonic backgrounds of extrusion

    图 4  影响挤压盐构造变形的因素[10, 53, 55-56]

    a.同构造沉积作用的影响;b.挤压速率的影响;c.滑脱层强度的影响;d.盐岩层厚度的影响

    Figure 4.  Factors influencing tectonic deformation of compacted salt

    图 5  先存构造对挤压盐构造演化的影响[59]

    a.先存盐背斜构造被挤压改造,形成盐推覆背斜构造;b.先存盐底辟构造被挤压改造,形成盐焊接构造;c.先存盐底辟构造被挤压改造,形成盐推覆构造

    Figure 5.  Influence of pre-existing structures on the tectonic evolution of compressional salt

    图 6  挤压型盐构造相关油气圈闭类型[3, 65, 68]

    a.与盐上褶皱有关的圈闭类型:①穹隆或背斜圈闭;②地层尖灭型圈闭;③断层阻挡型圈闭;④地层不整合型圈闭;⑤岩性孔隙圈闭。b.与盐上刺穿型盐构造有关的圈闭类型:①龟背构造型圈闭;②原始盐构造顶部或翼部地层不整合型圈闭;③龟背构造顶部断层阻挡型圈闭;④盐构造侧向遮挡型圈闭;⑤盐刺穿侧向断层阻挡型圈闭;⑥盐刺穿侧向地层尖灭型圈闭;⑦盐刺穿脊部地堑型圈闭;⑧盐刺穿顶部背斜型圈闭。c, d.与盐下叠瓦状冲断构造有关的圈闭类型:①断层相关背斜型圈闭;②砂岩透镜体型圈闭;③断层遮挡型圈闭;④岩性-断层型圈闭

    Figure 6.  Types of oil and gas traps related to salt structure

    图 7  波斯湾前陆盆地构造区划及油气田分布图[32]

    Figure 7.  Tectonic division and oil and gas field distribution map of Persian Gulf Foreland Basin

    图 8  四川盆地构造区划图[82]

    Z.震旦系;∈.寒武系;O-S.奥陶系-志留系;P-T1f.二叠系-下三叠统飞仙关组;T3-J1.上三叠统-下侏罗统;J2-K.中侏罗统-白垩系

    Figure 8.  Tectonic zoning map of Sichuan Basin

    图 9  库车坳陷构造区划分带图

    Q.第四系;N2.上新统;N1.中新统;K.白垩系;E.古近系;T.三叠系;C.石炭系;T-P.三叠系-二叠系;J-T.侏罗系-三叠系

    Figure 9.  Tectonic zone division map of Kuqa Depression

    图 10  塔西南坳陷构造区划分带图[103]

    Q-N2.第四系-上新统;N1.中新统;Pz2.上古生界;Pz1.下古生界;Pt.元古宇

    Figure 10.  Tectonic zone division map of the Southwest Depression of Tarim Basin

    图 11  柴达木盆地构造区划分带图[107]

    Q.第四系;N23.上新统狮子沟组;N22.上新统上油砂山组;N21.上新统下油砂山组;N1.中新统上干柴沟组;E32.渐新统下干柴沟组上段;E31.渐新统下干柴沟组下段;E1+2.古始新统路乐河组

    Figure 11.  Tectonic zone division map of Qaidam Basin

    表  1  国外典型挤压型盐构造及油气藏[32, 37-38]

    Table  1.   Typical structural styles of squeezed salt and oil gas reservoir abroad

    地区 安第斯山前陆盆地 扎格罗斯前陆造山带 墨西哥湾盆地
    盐(构造)作用 形成滑脱逆冲褶皱、断背斜 ①形成叠瓦状冲断褶皱、双重构造;②良好盖层 形成推覆断背斜
    代表性油气藏 Bermejo油田、Ramos气田、Sierra De Aguarague气田 Marun油气田、Parsi油气田、Kirkuk油气田、Ahwaz油气田 Cantarell气田
    典型油气藏构造类型
    注:E-N.古近系-新近系;M2-P3.中生界-上二叠统;P1-C.下二叠统-石炭系;D3.上泥盆统;D1-2.中-下泥盆统;Q-N2.第四系-上新统;N1.中新统;E3.渐新统;E2.始新统;E1.古新统;K.白垩系;J2-K1.中侏罗统-下白垩统;T-J1.三叠系-下侏罗统;Ng.Gachsaran组蒸发岩;Pg.Asmari组碳酸盐岩
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  我国典型挤压盐构造及油气藏[30, 35, 74-75]

    Table  2.   Comparison of structural characteristics of extruded salt in China

    盆地 膏岩层主要沉积地层 典型盐构造特征 典型盐构造与油气藏
    四川盆地 中下寒武统和中下三叠统 多层滑脱构造、褶皱构造、三角带构造
    库车坳陷 新近系、古近系、侏罗系、白垩系 盐上:盐推覆、向斜、盐核背斜、逆冲断层、断层传播褶皱盐岩:盐枕、盐焊接、断层焊接盐下:断层转折褶皱、背冲断块、逆冲断层
    塔西南坳陷 寒武系、古近系 褶皱、断裂、逆冲推覆、断裂转折褶皱、叠瓦状构造、双重构造、三角带构造
    柴达木盆地 始新统 逆冲叠瓦状构造、滑脱构造、褶皱构造
    注:J.侏罗系;T.三叠系;K-Q.白垩系-第四系;E1-2km.古近系库姆格列木组;N1j.新近系吉迪克组;N1k.新近系康村组;N2k.新近系库车组;E2-3s.始新统-渐新统苏维依组;K.白垩系;N21.上新统高庄阶;N1.中新统;N2.上新统;E32.渐新统塔木布鲁克阶;N22-Q.上新统麻则沟阶-第四系;Z.震旦系; C.石炭系;D.泥盆系;P.二叠系;E.古近系;K-J.白垩系-侏罗系
    下载: 导出CSV
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