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武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊表层沉积物重金属污染特征与生态风险评价

龚杰 孙紫童 冯璐 胡胜华 敖鸿毅 吴辰熙

龚杰, 孙紫童, 冯璐, 胡胜华, 敖鸿毅, 吴辰熙. 武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊表层沉积物重金属污染特征与生态风险评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(3): 204-210. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0313
引用本文: 龚杰, 孙紫童, 冯璐, 胡胜华, 敖鸿毅, 吴辰熙. 武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊表层沉积物重金属污染特征与生态风险评价[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(3): 204-210. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0313
Gong Jie, Sun Zitong, Feng Lu, Hu Shenghua, Ao Hongyi, Wu Chenxi. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of main lakes in Dongxihu district, Wuhan[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(3): 204-210. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0313
Citation: Gong Jie, Sun Zitong, Feng Lu, Hu Shenghua, Ao Hongyi, Wu Chenxi. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of main lakes in Dongxihu district, Wuhan[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(3): 204-210. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0313

武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊表层沉积物重金属污染特征与生态风险评价

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0313
基金项目: 

淡水生态与生物技术国家主要实验室基金 2019FBZ03

详细信息
    作者简介:

    龚杰(1983-), 男, 高级工程师, 主要从事水环境综合治理方面的研究工作。E-mail: gongjie1999@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: X524

Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of main lakes in Dongxihu district, Wuhan

  • 摘要: 人类活动对水环境影响巨大,同时水环境影响着人类的生产生活。采用地质累积指数法及潜在生态危害指数法对武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊表层沉积物重金属情况展开评价发现东西湖主要湖泊表层沉积物平均污染程度处于相对较低水平。地累积指数法评价结果表明,东大湖和金湖中Cd元素处于中度污染水平累积,墨水湖和上金湖中Cd元素为偏中度污染累积水平,其他湖泊沉积物中重金属均处于轻度或无污染水平。潜在生态危害指数法评价结果表明金湖和东大湖沉积物中重金属的潜在风险处于重度生态风险水平,墨水湖、上金湖、下银湖处于中度风险水平,其余湖泊沉积物中重金属的潜在风险均处于低风险水平。主成分分析表明,Hg、Cr、Ni、Cu、Zn、Cd、Pb可能来自于工业和交通源的排放,而As可能与农药的使用有关。后期金湖、东大湖、墨水湖、上金湖和下银湖的内源污染治理过程中需考虑重金属的生态风险问题。

     

  • 图 1  武汉市东西湖主要湖泊位置及调查点位布置图

    Figure 1.  Location of main lakes in Dongxihu Lake and layout of the sampling sites

    图 2  武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊表层沉积物重金属质量分数

    Figure 2.  Heavy metal content in surface sediments of main lakes in Dongxihu district, Wuhan

    图 3  武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊潜在生态风险指数

    Figure 3.  Potential ecological risk index of major lakes in Dongxihu district, Wuhan

    表  1  地累积指数污染分级

    Table  1.   Pollution classification table of geological accumclation index

    污染程度 无污染 轻度污染 偏中度污染 中度污染 偏重污染 重污染 严重污染
    级别 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
    Igeo ≤0 (0, 1] (1, 2] (2, 3] (3, 4] (4, 5] >5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  沉积物重金属污染程度和潜在生态风险指数划分标准

    Table  2.   Degree of heavy metal pollution in sediments and the classification standard of potential ecological risk index

    生态风险水平 Eri 总生态风险水平 RI
    < 40 < 150
    [40, 80) 中度 [150, 300)
    较重 [80, 160) 重度 [300, 600)
    [160, 320) 严重 ≥600
    严重 ≥320
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊与国内其他地区湖泊表层沉积物重金属污染情况对比

    Table  3.   Comparison of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of main lakes in Dongxihu district, Wuhan and other lakes in China

    湖泊 Hg Pb Cd Cu Zn Cr Ni As 来源
    wB/mg·kg-1
    阳澄湖 0.145 12.600 0.360 35.000 141.000 62.600 47.600 27.500 文献[20]
    鄱阳湖 0.110 49.400 0.798 30.700 112.000 64.100 26.300 15.000 文献[21]
    武汉东湖 0.168 39.400 0.480 51.600 149.500 105.000 44.100 15.500 文献[22]
    大明湖 - 42.890 0.240 46.730 138.710 62.060 19.370 5.180 文献[23]
    广州市主要湖泊 - 90.480 2.540 165.200 447.880 92.270 70.210 - 文献[24]
    上海市主要湖泊 0.110 32.700 0.230 41.200 155.000 - - - 文献[25]
    西安市主要湖泊 - 59.770 0.500 39.990 212.530 67.720 35.350 - 文献[26]
    武汉东西湖主要湖泊 0.080 32.300 0.340 39.500 108.000 103.000 45.300 15.100 本研究
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  武汉市东西湖区主要湖泊表层沉积物中重金属地累积指数及累积等级

    Table  4.   Index of geoaccumulation and accumulation grade of heavy metals in surface sediments of main lakes in Dongxihu district, Wuhan

    湖泊 As Hg Cd Ni Cu Zn Cr Pb
    Igeo 级别 Igeo 级别 Igeo 级别 Igeo 级别 Igeo 级别 Igeo 级别 Igeo 级别 Igeo 级别
    东大湖 -0.30 0 0.55 1.00 0.40 1 0.10 1 0.85 1 0.95 1 2.55 3 0
    金湖 0.10 1 0.80 1.00 0.60 1 0.30 1 1 1 0.90 1 2.80 3 0 0
    银湖 -0.79 0 -0.71 0 -0.58 0 -0.55 0 -0.43 0 -0.38 0 0.37 1 -0.44 0
    金银潭 -0.70 0 -1.35 0 -0.55 0 -0.55 0 -0.20 0 -0.25 0 0.15 1 -0.20 0
    墨水湖 -0.90 0 0.65 1 -0.25 0 -0.25 0 0.05 1 0.20 1 1.65 2 0 0
    马投潭 -0.30 0 -0.45 0 -0.45 0 -0.60 0 -0.40 0 -0.20 0 0.05 1 -0.45 0
    东银湖 -0.65 0 -0.35 0 -0.45 0 -0.35 0 0.05 1 0.15 1 0.80 1 -0.40 0
    上金湖 -0.20 0 0.30 1 -0.10 0 0.10 1.00 0 0 0.30 1 1.40 2 -0.20 0
    下银湖 -0.25 0 -0.35 0 -0.25 0 -0.15 0 -0.10 0 0.10 1 0.90 1 -0.40 0
    潇湘海 -0.50 0 -1.15 0 -0.35 0 -0.30 0 -0.30 0 -0.25 0 -0.25 0 -0.40 0
    杜公湖 0.75 1 -1.25 0 -0.30 0 -0.10 0 -0.30 0 -0.15 0 -0.70 0 -0.15 0
    幺教湖 0.50 1 -2.20 0 -0.60 0 -0.65 0 -0.80 0 -1.05 0 -1.65 0 0.20 1
    小罗晒 -0.05 0 -2.05 0 0 0 -0.50 0 -0.55 0 -0.85 0 -1.80 0 -0.35 0
    山西晒 -0.50 0 -1.80 0 -0.40 0 -0.40 0 -0.50 0 -0.60 0 -1.50 0 -0.50 0
    北晒湖 -0.10 0 -1.50 0 -0.40 0 -0.35 0 -0.55 0 -0.55 0 -1.15 0 -0.25 0
    龙王沟 0 0 -1.65 0 -0.30 0 -0.35 0 -0.40 0 -0.60 0 -0.55 0 -0.20 0
    肖家教 0.20 1 -1.90 0 -0.50 0 -0.15 0 -0.50 0 -0.80 0 -1.05 0 -0.20 0
    甘家教 0.30 1 -0.35 0 -0.25 0 -0.75 0 -0.75 0 -0.70 0 -1.50 0 -0.30 0
    巨龙湖 0.05 1 -1.45 0 -0.25 0 -0.05 0 -0.20 0 -0.15 0 -0.25 0 -0.15 0
    李家墩 -0.50 0 -1.65 0 -0.65 0 -0.40 0 -0.60 0 -0.80 0 -1.45 0 -0.55 0
    杨泗泾 -0.50 0 -1.70 0 -0.45 0 -0.40 0 -0.40 0 -0.45 0 -0.80 0 -0.55 0
    月牙湖 0.15 1 -1.10 0 -0.25 0 0 0 -0.15 0 -0.10 0 0.3 0 -0.60 0
    泥达湖 -0.45 0 -2.20 0 -0.50 0 -0.20 0 -0.65 0 -0.75 0 -1.80 0 -0.50 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同重金属元素的旋转成分矩阵

    Table  5.   Rotation matrix of different heavy metal elements

    元素 主成分1 主成分2 元素 主成分1 主成分2
    As -0.031 0.986 Cu 0.965 -0.041
    Hg 0.867 -0.232 Zn 0.966 -0.139
    Cr 0.932 0.305 Cd 0.938 -0.150
    Ni 0.798 0.006 Pb 0.855 0.199
    下载: 导出CSV
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