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龙马溪组层状页岩微观非均质性及力学各向异性特征

解经宇 陆洪智 陈磊 金显鹏 王丹 付国强

解经宇, 陆洪智, 陈磊, 金显鹏, 王丹, 付国强. 龙马溪组层状页岩微观非均质性及力学各向异性特征[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(3): 67-77. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0302
引用本文: 解经宇, 陆洪智, 陈磊, 金显鹏, 王丹, 付国强. 龙马溪组层状页岩微观非均质性及力学各向异性特征[J]. 地质科技通报, 2021, 40(3): 67-77. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0302
Xie Jingyu, Lu Hongzhi, Chen Lei, Jin Xianpeng, Wang Dan, Fu Guoqiang. Micro scopic heterogeneity and mechanical anisotropy of the laminated shale in Longmaxi Formation[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(3): 67-77. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0302
Citation: Xie Jingyu, Lu Hongzhi, Chen Lei, Jin Xianpeng, Wang Dan, Fu Guoqiang. Micro scopic heterogeneity and mechanical anisotropy of the laminated shale in Longmaxi Formation[J]. Bulletin of Geological Science and Technology, 2021, 40(3): 67-77. doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0302

龙马溪组层状页岩微观非均质性及力学各向异性特征

doi: 10.19509/j.cnki.dzkq.2021.0302
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2018YFB1501803-04

国家重点研发计划 2020YFE0201300-05

中国地质调查局能源矿产地质调查项目 DD20190135

详细信息
    作者简介:

    解经宇(1991-), 男, 工程师, 主要从事页岩气、干热岩水力压裂方面的研究。E-mail: xiejingyu@cug.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    陆洪智(1976-), 男, 副教授, 主要从事地质钻探及非常规能源开发方面的研究。E-mail: 35749653@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P584

Micro scopic heterogeneity and mechanical anisotropy of the laminated shale in Longmaxi Formation

  • 摘要: 层状页岩的微观非均质性及力学各向异性对研究井壁稳定以及水力裂缝扩展形态具有重要意义。为了向页岩优化钻井、压裂工艺参数提供一定的理论和试验依据,对沿不同角度取心的页岩试样开展单轴压缩实验,配合场发射扫描电镜、原子力显微镜观测实验和波速测试等,研究龙马溪组层状页岩微观非均质性及力学各向异性特征,并讨论这些物理力学特征对水力裂缝形态的影响规律。结果表明:受层理面的影响,龙马溪组页岩呈现出较强的微观非均质性和宏观力学各向异性特征。具体的,微观孔隙结构特征方面,随着观测方向与层理方向之间夹角β的增大,微观孔隙结构的发育程度逐渐增加,说明气体的储集和空间呈增加趋势;宏观力学特征方面,单轴压缩条件下,随着加载方向与层理方向间夹角θ的增加,页岩试样的破坏模式从贯穿层理面的张拉破坏,先转变为剪切破坏,再变为劈裂-剪切混合破坏;龙马溪组层状页岩的单轴抗压强度、泊松比随着θ的增加呈现出先减小后增大的"U"形各向异性模式,弹性模量、横纵波速则逐渐减小,胶结程度较弱的页岩层理面会先于基质体发生破坏,进而显著影响岩石整体的力学性质;页岩微观非均质性及力学各向异性特征在一定程度上影响压裂过程中水力裂缝的扩展行为,以及停泵后压裂液的渗流路径。研究结果可为页岩压裂工艺参数优选提供一定依据。

     

  • 图 1  野外试样采集位置

    a.采样点构造位置示意图;b.采样点

    Figure 1.  Collectionlocation map of the sampling site

    图 2  取样示意图及成品

    a.取心示意图;b.不同取心角度的试样示意图;c.部分加工完成的样品

    Figure 2.  Diagram of the specimen preparation process and the experimental specimens

    图 3  不同取心角度页岩试样的FE-SEM测试结果

    Figure 3.  FE-SEM images of the shale specimens at different coring angles

    图 4  AFM测试结果描述

    a.AFM检测结果界面;b.样品表面观测区域起伏图像

    Figure 4.  Description of AFM test results

    图 5  不同取心角度页岩试样AFM测试结果

    Figure 5.  AFM images of the shale specimens at the different coring angles

    图 6  不同取心角度页岩试样破坏模式及裂缝形态(θ为加载方向和层理方向之间的夹角)

    Figure 6.  Typical failure patterns and fracture geometry of the shale specimens at different coring angles

    图 7  抗压强度、弹性模量、泊松比随θ的变化规律

    Figure 7.  Variation of uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus and Poisson′s ratio with the θ

    图 8  横、纵波速随夹角φ的变化规律

    Figure 8.  Variation of P and S wave velocity with the φ

    图 9  页岩各向异性对于裂缝起裂的影响

    a.裂缝起裂后沿近井层理面扩展;b.水力裂缝起裂后直接延伸至试样边界

    Figure 9.  Effect of the shale anisotropy on the initiation of hydraulic fracture

    图 10  页岩各向异性对于裂缝扩展的影响

    a.水力裂缝穿透层理面;b.水力裂缝被层理面“捕获”

    Figure 10.  Effect of the shale anisotropy on the propagation of hydraulic fracture

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